動物俗語

我們學習詞彙時,往往會發現當兩個字拼在一起時,很可能各自原來的意義都會消失,而形成另一個全新的意義。比如「客氣」與「客人」和「氣」沒有很大的關連。

在我們日常的慣用語、俗語、成語之中,這種情況就更普遍了。翻看一些我們經常掛在口邊的俗語,裏頭還藏着不少動物。這些帶動物的俗語,我們平常說起來、聽起來都活靈活現,可是往往會難倒不少外國人,連我們自己的小孩都要經過長時期的使用才會慢慢地體會到其中的含意呢。

以下我們一起來看看十個帶有動物的常用俗語。

兩個字的俗語

吹牛 [動] 胡扯、炫耀,bullsh*t

吹牛和黃牛、水牛有關係嗎?應該沒有吧。
要是我們說某人在吹牛,那他說的話不一定就是錯的、假的,但我們都不會太認真地把它當一回事兒。

色狼 [名] 非禮、侵犯女性的男子

聽了這個名詞,狼一族會不會叫冤呢?這「色」字怎麼來的?原來在古文中,「色」有「美女」的意思,像「重色輕友」。而狼會偷雞摸狗,大家都得提防呢。

走狗 [名] 替人跑腿做(壞)事的人

我們之前的一篇文章中曾經提過古時候中國人心目中對狗隻是貶斥的:不少含貶意的字亦是犬字部的,例如狠、猥、狹、猖...。這「走狗」的比喻是很形象化的描述。

三個字的俗語

拍蒼蠅 [形] 無所事事,沒有顧客和生意

蒼蠅在炎夏悶熱的天氣,嗡嗡地讓人頭煩;坐在櫃台等待客人光顧的店主卻沒有生意,難免就會心煩。這兩個煩加在一起,卻又做不到甚麼,看來無所事事、只能去打蒼蠅的光景,大家都能懂了吧。

炒魷魚 [動] 解僱

這是南方廣東一帶的俗語。
魷魚,一般會先在背上切出細細的格子花,一下鍋炒起來就會捲起。這和捲席子、收拾包袱很形像。當市道不景、公司裁員的時候,大家都會避免點這道菜呢 – 不好兆頭嘛。

四個字的俗語

井底之蛙 [名] 沒有見過世面的人

這個成語來自一個故事:一向只住在井底的一隻青蛙,就會以為世界就只有像井口那麼大,世上發生的事情也就只有它能看得見的那麼丁點。

九牛二虎 [形] 費了很大的努力

牛和老虎是從來不可能會合作的。但是傳統以來,說起重、大、有力氣,牛是家畜之冠,而老虎就是萬獸之王。(大象和獅子當然也很重大有力,但在古代的中國不常見。) 試想像九頭牛和兩頭老虎合起來的力氣吧。
可是有沒有想過為甚麼不說二牛九虎呢?難道是平仄音律的原因?

雞同鴨講 [形] 兩個人各說各的(語言上、思想上),不能溝通

雞和鴨都是家禽,經常會在一起,按道理很能相互了解、溝通的。偏偏牠們就是說不明啊。
有沒有感覺很有共鳴呢?

五個字的俗語

劏雞用牛刀 [動] 用過大的代價去做一件小事

傳統,家家戶戶會自己在家殺雞宰牛,這兩件工作分別有各自用的刀。用特大的牛刀去殺小雞,不但有點過份,還可能會反而更辦不好吧?

扮豬吃老虎 [動] 裝着傻佔別人便宜

這俗語南方人比較常用,用來罵一些假好人,心中卻另有盤算的人;或是裝可憐討人同情,其實卻在伺機獲利的人。


以上的十個常用俗語,都用了人們經常能接觸到的動物,或是有代表性、容易起到誇張效果的動物。這十個俗語當中,其中牛出現過三次,雞和老虎出現過兩次。你看過以後,對中國傳統的農業社會生活有甚麼新的認識嗎?

同時,這十個帶動物的俗語,都帶有貶意呢。難道說我們罵人的時候偏向婉轉,取向利用比喻去譏諷?還是只有利用牲畜來罵人,才能繪形繪聲地、徹底地表達我們的心聲呢?啊哈~


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

從喝開水說起 Boiled water, anyone?

(English version follows Chinese)

外國人習慣扭開水龍頭就拿水喝,因為在歐美,水龍頭的水是安全可以飲用的。在中國就不行:生水不能喝,必須要先燒開。

外國人感到中國人喝開水很特別。

的確,我們一般會喝暖的或是熱的開水。可是,其實我們說的開水是指「已經燒開過、能安全飲用的水」。開水,也有冷開水、溫/暖開水、熱開水、剛剛燒開的燙開水…

對外國人來說,可以喝、可以用的都是water。Hot water 是用來洗澡或是特殊清潔等需要的。只有在很有需要的情況下 (泡茶/咖啡) 才會用上boiling water.

簡單的「開水」一個名詞就包含了我們文化的不少的獨特之處。語文,的確是每個文化和民族生活思想的產品。

中文的精準

當歐美的朋友向你介紹:這位是我的brother (或sister / uncle / aunt / grandmother / grandfather / cousin…) 時,你心中很自然地會同時生出很多疑問吧:

  • Brother / sister:是哥哥還是弟弟?姐姐還是妹妹呢?
  • Grandfather / Grandmother:祖父母?外祖父母?

說到 uncle、aunt、cousin時,我們中心的疑問就更多了。對於這些人際關係,中國人向來非常的精準。一個稱謂,已能清楚說明了兩個人之間的血緣和親疏關係。

但我們不能就說中國人比歐美人、或是中文比英文精準。

英文的精準

下面我們來舉幾個例子。

就以日常生活來說,英文take a shower和take a bath絕對是兩回事。當外國人聽到中國人一句「他在洗澡」,他們心中也馬上起了沒有解釋清楚的疑問。

又比如我們說「有沒有筆,讓我記一記?」他們肯定會追問:甚麼樣的筆?因為英文會說明到底是pen (原珠筆) / pencil (鉛筆) / crayon (蠟筆)…。 要說「作為書寫工具的統稱」的筆,就只能說 writing instrument – 平常裏是不會這樣說的。在一些工作的說明裏,英文會列明準備 “paper and pen, pencil, crayon…”,而中文往往會攏統地說「準備紙筆」。

當我們說「坐車去吧」,他們也會感到含糊,非得弄清楚:car / taxi / bus / train / bus / tram…?對他們來說,這些車之間完全不一樣,沒弄清楚以前他們不能行動。當然,我們說的「車」指的是「有別於飛機、船之類的交通工具,也不是走路或騎車」的意思。可是在英語日常對話中,沒有人會說 Let’s take a vehicle。同樣地,中文說騎車,不必說明是自行車或是機車;而英文就一定不會含糊。以下是一種經常會出現的情況:

中國人:你坐車來嗎?
外國人:我沒有車子。我坐巴士 (公車 / 打的)來。
中國人:對,我就是那個意思。
外國人 (心想):你哪裏是那個意思啊⋯

真正的雙語/多語學習

生活中最平常的事、最顯淺的字,往往最能反映民族的特色。這裏面只有差異,沒有優劣。

當我們教導孩子雙/多語的時候,盡量為他們講解這些文化和生活習慣之間的差異,讓他們從小就明白這些不同的文化特色,成為真正的雙語/多語使用者。

Europeans and Americans drink cold tap water because in Europe and in America, tap water is safe to drink. It is not the case in China. We have to bring the water to boil first to ensure safety.

This Chinese habit of drinking 開水 (boiled water) may bewilder many foreigners.

It certainly is a Chinese habit to drink warm or hot boiled water. However, it is worth knowing that the word 開水 refers to water that has once been boiled and is thus safe for drinking. 開水 can be cold, warm, hot, or boiling hot.

Water, just one simple word, is for both drinking and washing to Europeans and Americans. Hot water is used for shower or baths, or some special cleaning purposes. Boiling water is for brewing tea or coffee.

A word as simple as 開水embodies a lot of cultural uniqueness. Language is indeed the product of each culture, and the lifestyle and thoughts of its people.

When Chinese is being precise

When someone introduces another person and says “this is my brother (or sister / uncle / aunt / grandmother / grandfather / cousin…), a series of questions would immediately be raised in the head of a Chinese:

  • Brother / sister: is s/he elder or younger than you?
  • Grandfather / grandmother: paternal? Or maternal?

When it comes to uncle, aunt or cousins, it raises even more questions. There is this natural urge in a Chinese to find out more about the relationship. In the Chinese language, the bloodline and relationship between two people are clearly defined by each name.

However, it is not to say that Chinese people or language are more precise than English.

When English is being precise

For some everyday activities, such as taking a show or a bath, a clear distinction is made in English with the change of one word. In Chinese, when people say 「他在洗澡」(he’s washing himself), the lack of precision about how the person is washing themself could be a little confusing.

When a Chinese says “May I borrow a 筆”, it refers to any writing instrument. In English, people tend to precise whether it is a pen, pencil, crayon…etc. You would never say “May I borrow a writing instrument?”. When it comes to giving instructions and preparing the list of materials needed, the one word in Chinese 筆 may seem ambiguous. You would most likely be precise and include everything - pen, pencil, crayon...

Similarly, a Chinese would suggest to “take a 車” when you need to travel far. You would precise to take a car / taxi / bus / train / bus / tram… A 車 refers to any kind of vehicle that runs on the road, as opposed to a ship, a plane, or walking. In English, you would never hear people suggest “Let’s take a vehicle”. While you would say to ride a motorcycle or a bicycle, in Chinese 騎車 tends to be less precise. The scenario below could arise everyday:

Chinese: Did you come in a car?
Non-Chinese: No, I don’t own a car. I came by bus (or taxi).
Chinese: That’s what I meant.
Non-Chinese (thinking): Perhaps, but that’s not what you said…

True bi- or multi-lingualism

The words in a language that can best illustrate the characteristics of its people are often the ones that are most common and the simplest. It is important for us to recognise that while cultures and languages differ from each other, no one is more superior nor inferior.

When we bring up children to be bilingual or multilingual, it would benefit them for us to explain the differences between the cultures and practices to them. It’s only by understanding these cultural characteristics they will become true bi- or multilinguals.

 


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

詞彙學習 The etymology and usage of [打]

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。


「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

其他組詞 Vocabulary study


躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:


打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

 啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER 

打人 to hit someone
打下 to shoot down
打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
打鳥 to shoot a bird
打手 a hired thug
打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
打開 to open
打天下 to seize power
打草 to make a draft
打家 (劫舍) to rob

 萌芽級 BUDDING READER 

打中 to hit a target
打風 To experience a typhoon
打氣 to cheer
打魚 to fish
打比方 to give an analogy
打火 to light a fire
(打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
打住 to stop, to halt
打點 to get ready, to put things in order
打坐 to meditate
打聽 to ask around, to enquire
打耳光 to slap
打不過 To be unable to beat
打從 ever since

 躍進級 BEGINNING READER 

打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
打更 to sound the night watch
打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
打洞 to punch a hole
打動 to move emotionally
打嘴巴 to slap

 信心級 BEGINNING READER 

打電話 to make a phone call
打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
打傘 to hold up an umbrella
打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
打字 to type
打字機 a typewriter
打分 to grade or mark
打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
打傷 to injure

 實力級 BEGINNING READER 

打球 to play ball
打遊戲機 to play video game
打掃 to clean up
打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
打滾 to roll about
打結 to tie a knot
打破 to break, to smash
打圓場 to smooth things over

 成語 idioms 

打成一片 to integrate
打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
打發時間 to kill time
打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

This is interesting!

How would you say “This is interesting!” in Chinese?
「這個很有趣!」… No, no!

In most cases, we would rather say:

「(這)有意思!」

意思 /yì si/ is a very frequently used word. The most basic meaning of 意思 is “meaning”. Such as:

  • 你這是甚麼意思? What do you mean by that?
  • 這是甚麼意思? What does this mean?

The word 意思 can also be used in many other situations. Some common examples might surprise you.

Excuse me! (Please let me pass.) 不好意思。(請讓一讓。)
Sorry (that I’m busy right now. / that I’m late.) 不好意思 (我現在沒空。 / 我來晚了。)
He fancies her! 他對她有意思。
He is not interested in her. 他對她沒有意思。
Are you shameless! 你還好意思!
It’s so embarrassing! 太不好意思了!
I want to go to the beach this weekend. What do you think? 這個周未我想去海灘。你的意思呢?
This is for you. I hope you like it. (When you give someone a present.) 小小意思,不成敬意。
If you insist (accepting a present or an offer). 那我就不好意思了。
This is so boring / pointless / such a waste of effort! 真沒意思!
That’s OK. (when someone thanked you or apologise to you) 小意思。
This is nothing! (when boasting one’s own skills) 小意思!
This is very meaningful. 這事很有意思。
This is thought provoking. (a speech, a writing, etc) (你的話 / 你說得 / 文章寫得) 很有意思。
It’s about to rain. 天有要下雨的意思。

When two 意思 are put together

疊詞 (die-ci, replication – when a same character is used twice in a word) is a distinctive characteristic of Chinese. The word 意思 can also be used as a die-ci. The expression 意思意思 can mean “just a little something” “a gesture”. For example:

  • There is no need to give something expensive. It’s the thought that counts. 不必送貴重的東西,意思意思就好。
  • It’s just a formality. 就意思意思。

In summary, the word 意思 carries the following meanings:

意思
  1. meaning (noun)
  2. an opinion, a wish (noun)
  3. the thought or good wishes carried by a present (noun)
  4. to express a thought or an emotion (verb)
  5. an indication, a tendency (noun)
  6. interest, fun (noun)

How  would you interpret each of the 意思 below?

Below is the adaptation of a very popular joke, reflecting the multiple meanings of 意思, and subtlety in Chinese style. Are you able to understand what each of the 意思 mean in the dialogue below?

A staff presents a gift to the CEO.

CEO: 你這是甚麼意思?
Staff: 沒甚麼意思。就意思意思。
CEO: 你這就不夠意思了。
Staff: 小意思,小意思。
CEO: 你這人真有意思。
Staff: 其實也沒有別的意思。
CEO: 那我就不好意思了。
Staff: 是我不好意思。

Here is a loose translation of the conversation:

CEO: What do you mean by this?
Staff: Nothing. Just a little something.
CEO: How very “cunning” of you.
Staff: It’s really nothing. Nothing at all.
CEO: You are very interesting.
Staff: I really don’t have any other intentions.
CEO: Then I’ll say “Thank you”.
Staff: The pleasure is all mine.


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

漢語中的比較詞 Let’s compare

對英語文法稍有認識的人,都會知道英語的 comparative 和 superlative 的詞彙和法則 (一般來說是形容詞/副詞加 er 或 est,或在前面加上 more 或 the most)。

中文有這類比較詞嗎?

當然有。

最顯淺、直接的方法,可以和英語文法對照的,是在形容詞/副詞前面加上「更」或「最」。

When we make comparisons in English, we use comparatives and superlatives.
The equivalents in Chinese is to add 更 or 最 respectively, such as the examples below.

  • 哥哥跳得高,學長跳得高,體育老師跳得高。
  • 面包好吃,餃子好吃,蔥油餅好吃!
  • 走路的時候要小心,走梯級的時候要小心,天雨過馬路的時候要小心!

英語的 superlative 有時會用完全不同的字來表達。例如,雖然 the best 是 good 的最高層次,但 wonderful 或 excellent 就明顯地更優越了。

中文也一樣:真正能表達各種不同程度的方法並不在於單純地加上「更」或「最」,而是選用完全不同的詞。下面的例子就能說明準確的用詞怎樣能確切地表達意思,同時令文章更生動傳神。

Apart from the use of 更 or 最, there are many other adjectives and adverbs in Chinese that express different levels or intensity of a description. This is quite similar to the use of "wonderful" or "excellent" other than "the best" in English.
Below are some examples.

基本詞 升級 厲害
快樂 歡天喜地 歡騰
哭 (淚汪汪) 淚如雨下 呼天搶地
美麗 嬌艷 國色天香
進步 循序漸進 突飛猛進
幫忙 成全 雪中送炭
努力 全力 極力
退步 惡化 一落千丈
比不上 黯然失色 望塵莫及
一樣 半斤八兩 棋逢敵手
相對立 格格不入 水火不容
困難 好不容易 艱巨
難過 悲哀 傷心欲絕
稱讚 嘉許 拍案叫絕
取笑 嘲笑 恥笑
批評 指責 評擊
藥到病除 妙手回春 起死回生
一眼關七 一目十行 一覽無遺

從詞到句 On the sentence level

要比較數量、程度等,我們還可以用比較句去表達。當兩件事物不一樣時,我們通常會用「比」字來表達。

Apart from words, there are also comparative sentence structures in Chinese. In most cases, the word 比 is used.

  • 哥哥我大兩歲。
  • 昨天的雨下得今天大。

用「比」字的時候,要是兩種相比的事物都已達到一定的水平,可以加用「更」、「再」、「還」突出情況來。

When the two objects or actions being compared are of a similar level, we use 更 / 再 / 還 to emphasise the superiority of one of them.

單用「比」 「比」+ 「更」/「再」/「還」
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的不好看。)
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的也好看。)
我吃得比你多。
(你吃得不多。)
我吃得比你多。
(你也吃很多。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他可能來得不晚,可是其他人都比他早。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他來得很晚,而且最晚。)

上面的是「增值」的例子,強調前面的事物的程度比後面的事物要高、要強。如果我們要從相反角度去說,就會用「沒有」/「不如」。一般我們還會在形容詞/副詞前面加上「那麼」。

While 比 is used in affirmative sentences, 沒有 / 不如 is used in negative statements. In these cases, the word 那麼 is often used in conjunction.

  • 藍色的沒有紅色的那麼好看。/  藍色的不如紅色的那麼好看。
  • 沒有我吃得那麼多。/  你不如我吃得那麼多。
  • 其他人沒有他來得那麼晚。/  其他人不如他來得那麼晚。

以上我們探討了漢語中利用字詞和句式兩個層面的比較方法。

上面列出的比較詞詞例雖然只是漢語詞彙庫的冰山一角,但已能讓我們感受到詞彙的力量:豐富的詞彙量能讓我們貼切地表達不同程度的描述,同時增加文章的色彩。對現時在求學階段的孩子來說,增加詞彙量不但有助他們的智力發展,更能幫助他們充分地表達自己人思想和意見。對我們成年人來說,豐富的詞彙量也同樣有利於職場競爭力和人際關係。要增加詞彙量,最好方法是閱讀、閱讀、再閱讀優質的文章,另外少不了的是多寫、多練。

當然,有研究指出,「詞彙量大的學生並不一定能寫出高質量的作文」。是否能寫出漂亮的文章還取決於寫作策略和其他相關的能力,而思展部落格的文章一直不斷從多方面探討多寫多練和如何養成這些能力的方法。歡迎大家多參閱我們的各類文章。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

Games to learn the character 去

Last week we discussed the various meanings of 去 and how it is used. This week, we will use some activities to help children get familiar with this word.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

These games should be played after your child has learnt the character 去 from the Basic Chinese 500 book (Beginning Reader, book 2, lesson 11).

I want to... (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 (from Beginning Reader) + 2 more study cards (the 2 cards can be random but should both be from Beginning Reader) (or make your own word cards)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay the 3 study cards in front of your child. Ask your child to point out 去. (If they get it wrong, simply point out the correct one to them)
  2. Lay the location and the activity images in front of the child.
  3. Tell your child that you want to go to a place, or to do something (e.g. to the park: 我要去公園。/ to go fishing: 我要去釣魚。)
  4. Ask your child to put the card 去 on top of the correct image card. If they have done correctly, they can keep the image card.
  5. Mix up the 3 study cards again, shuffle their places and lay them out in front of your child.
  6. Repeat the game, until all the images have been used up.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 
  1. If you child is very young or is just starting out, focus only on the locations first, and then the activities.
  2. You could also ask your child to choose where they want to go, by asking them: 你要去哪裏? or what they want to do: 你要去做甚麼?
  3. Encourage them to say out the sentence of where they are going or what they are going to do.
  4. Multiple children can take turns to play this game together.

Pushing 去 around (age 3+)

This game should be played after the first game above. You could use the same set of image cards as above.

 WHAT THE CHILD LEARNS 學到甚麼 
  • When speaking, 去 can also be placed after an action, but not after a location, as demonstrated below.
    我去買東西。 =我買東西去。
    我去書店。 (but NOT *我書店去。)
 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 and我. You could also add the optional 要 (all of these are from Beginning Reader)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay out the cards 我(要)去. Ask your child to read out these characters.
  2. Pick a location or an action and place it after 去.
  3. Ask your child to say the whole sentence, including the image or the action.
  4. Place the 去 card after the image card and ask your child to say the whole sentence according to the new order. Does it sound right?
  5. Repeat the game until all the image cards have run out.
  6. After playing enough times, your child will have a feeling of the rule of where 去 should be placed.
  7. You could use new image cards from time to time, to add interest and keep your child engaged.

Reading practice (age 4.5+)

Now let's put what we have learnt together and do some reading. The sentences below focus on the 8 words below, 4 of them with 去 at the end, and 4 at the beginning of each word:

過去 / 回去/ 下去 / 離去

去年 / 去向 / 去掉 / 去皮

Children who are studying Building Reader or above should be able to read all of the sentences below on their own.

4 words with 去 at the end

  1. 過去我不會唱歌,現在會了。
  2. 天黑了,公園裏的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小貓從樹上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火車帶着老師,慢慢地離去了。

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 过去我不会唱歌,现在会了。
  2. 天黑了,公园里的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小猫从树上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火车带着老师,慢慢地离去了。

4 words with 去 at the beginning

  1. 今年我長得比去年高了。
  2. 小鳥飛得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一點,就變成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的時候會去皮嗎?

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 今年我长得比去年高了。
  2. 小鸟飞得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一点,就变成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的时候会去皮吗?

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK 老編心得

Add variety to promote learning.
Children learn in different ways. They don’t only learn through visual, or audio, or a single way. Rather, each channel creates a different imprint in the brain and together they form the child’s overall knowledge. When we engage children in various activities to learn one concept, those experiences enhance each other and leave a much deeper impression. Let children touch, move, listen, read, watch… and enriched learning will happen.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

去 – more than the opposite of 來

In a previous post, we looked at the character 來. In this post, we will take a look at its opposite: 去.

ancient writing

The ancient writing of 去 is a person on top of a cave (his home), meaning someone leaving where he is living (the house, or the homeland). The shape evolved and become the present day 去.

Han dynasty writing

The radical of 去 is 厶, which is counted as 2 strokes. 去 has a total of 5 strokes.

Basic meaning of 去

The most basic meaning of 去 is “to, to go”.

去 can be a one word sentence on its own: 「去!」which is giving an order for someone to go (away, forward, …).
Some common uses of 去 are:

  • 去 + place >> 我去學校。 (I go to school.)
  • 去 + action >> 我去買東西。(I go shopping.)

* all of the examples quoted in this post are characters taught in the Sage Formula curriculum, unless otherwise specified.


Examples of words containing 去

As with many other characters, 去 can combine with other characters to form new words. Some of these words have very little to do with its original meanings. In general, it signifies the removal or reduction of something. It can be a verb, or an adverb. Below are some examples:

去 as a verb:

  • 去掉 – to remove, to eliminate
  • 去世 – to pass away
  • 去皮 – to peel
  • 失去 – to lose
  • 抺去 – to erase
  • 除去 – to eliminate
  • 離去 – to leave
  • 一去不回 – gone forever

去 as an adverb:

  • 去年 – last year
  • 去向 – whereabouts
  • 去路 – outlet, the path one is following
  • 比下去 – to be superior to
  • 不知去向 – gone missing

過去 and 下去 are two very commonly used words. We will take a closer look at these two below.

過去

There are 3 distinct meanings and usages of this word.

Meaning 1:

"in the past".

Meaning 2:

It can be used together with other verbs to show the direction of the action, such as:

    • 過去 - to go over
    • 走過去 - to walk over
    • 跑過去 - to run over
    • 看過去 - to look over
    • 打過去 - to hit over
    • 踢過去 - to kick over
    • … etc
Meaning 3:

"Passable". Take a look at the examples below:

    • 說得過去 - acceptable (of an excuse or explanation)
    • 說不過去 - inexcusable
    • 過得去 - not too bad
    • 過不去 - to make it difficult for someone, unable to make it through

Pay attention to the use of 不 and 得 in the second pair of examples, as they are not opposites.

下去

While this word can simply mean “to go down”, it also means to carry on doing something, depending on the verb it pairs with, such as:

  • 說下去  to continue to tell
  • 看下去  to continue to watch
  • 聽下去  to continue to listen
  • 寫下去  to continue to write
  • 讀下去  to continue to read
  • 做下去  to continue to do

In the following situations, the words can have either meaning, to show direction or to show continuity, depending on the context:

  • 走下去
  • 爬下去
  • 吃下去

去 and 來

In general, 去 and 來 are considered opposites. They tell of the different location of the speaker in relation to the object, much like “come” and “go”, or “here” and “there”.

上去 go up / 上來 come up
下去 go down / 下來 come down
出去 / 出來
回去 / 回來
帶去 / 帶來
進去 / 進來
送去 / 送來
過去 / 過來

去 and 來 can be used in the same word (or idiom). The most straightforward meaning of this kind of words is to show direction of movements. Let’s look at some examples:

  • 跑來跑去 to run about
  • 飛來飛去 to fly about

Many other action words that involve movements that cause a change in location can be used in the same fashion, such as:

  • 踢 (to kick)
  • 轉 (to turn)
  • 走 (to walk)

In some cases where the verb do not involve movements in location, it gives a sense of back and forth, or in many directions:

說來說去 – all the talks on a subject
看來看去 – examining something from various points
想來想去 – to give all considerations on something
推來推去 – to push and pull others (being rude), everybody trying to evade responsibility and push it to others
眉來眼去 – to exchange flirting looks

It can also be used as an adjective, such as 直來直去, describing someone being very direct and straightforward.

An adjective worth learning is the idiom 死去活來. This idiom gives a very vivid picture when used with the following verbs:

得死去活來 – to be madly in love
得死去活來 – to cry one’s heart out
得死去活來 – to be in excruciating pain
得死去活來 – to be boiling mad
Some exceptional cases

In some cases (such as with the verbs 看 /聽 /吃 /穿), the meaning doesn’t change whether you use 去 or 來:

看上去 / 看起來 – it appears to be
聽上去 / 聽起來 – it sounds like
吃上去 / 吃起來 – when one tastes it
穿上去 / 穿起來 – when one wears it

去 is taught in Book 2 of Beginning Reader, one of the very first words that your child learns. As they learn more characters, they start to learn about different combinations of the characters to build new words.
The best way to expand their vocabulary is to build upon what they have already learnt.
In our coming post, we will share with you some games and activities that you can do at home to expand your child's vocabulary based on 去.

Stay tuned.

迎鼠接福 賀歲遊戲

庚子鼠年快要到了。先向大家拜個早年:

祝小朋友 精乖靈俐!快高長大!
祝各位爸爸、媽媽 萬事勝意! 龍馬精神!

過年是喜慶的日子。對我們中國人來說,「意頭」尤其重要:過年就要說一些吉利的話,吃些吉利的食品,相互祝賀未來的一年大家能有個順利、豐盛、健康的一年。

從我們歷來的一大堆的成語就知道,我們向來喜歡四個字一組的詞語。那麼賀歲拜年的吉語自然也多是四個字,小朋友很容易記、容易上口。

一些孩子之間可以互相祝賀用的吉語

  • 學業進步
  • 步步高升
  • 身體健康
  • 快高長大

祝賀大人、長輩用的吉語

  • 身體健康
  • 龍馬精神
  • 出入平安
  • 心想事成

 

祝賀上班族/做生意的親朋戚友的吉語

  • 東成西就
  • 步步高升
  • 一本萬利
  • 馬到功成

 

新春賀歲遊戲

思展向來鼓勵孩子從生活中學習。那就讓我們趁着過年,來幾個遊戲讓孩子邊學傳統邊識字,一起送舊迎新吧。

遊戲一  貼揮

  1. 下載揮春模紙及吉語。(備有繁/簡版,連結在下面)
       
  2. 每次兩組,教導孩子認讀吉語。
  3. 當孩子認熟了吉語的字,將它們分別剪開。
  4. 將揮春模紙剪下。
  5. 孩子將吉語貼上,製成揮春。

提示:

  1. 揮春模紙上已印有的吉語字是基礎漢字500課程以外的字,請家長按孩子的個別情況挑選教導。
  2. 另有空白的揮春模紙及字格,家長可以靈活使用。
         
貼揮春遊戲繁體版 贴挥春遊戏简体版

遊戲二  賀歲攢盒大拼製

除了吉語和揮春之外,我們的新春食品都很講究意頭呢。特別是廣東人,尤其多各式各樣的名堂。看看下面各種食品帶來的吉詳寓意吧:

食品 寓意
年糕 步步高升
年年有餘
蘋果 平平安安
柑橘 大吉大利
髮菜 (蠔豉) 發財 (好事)
餃子 招財進寶
柚子 有 (孩) 子
韮菜 長長久久
柿子 事事如意
春捲 外表像金磚

讓孩子趁着過年學習各種食品的名稱吧。這個活動不單很應節,而且還很適合小朋友玩各種角色扮演的遊戲喔。

 遊戲方法 
  1. 下載PDF (連結在下面),列印出來。
  2. PDF內有3頁食品圖片和一頁名稱。先教孩子認識各種食品的名稱。
     
  3. 參考下圖,將食品圖片逐將剪開。
  4. 將食品名稱也分別剪開,讓孩子配對貼上。可以隨意多印幾份,準備一個豐富的賀年攢盒喔。
  5. 食品準備好,可以列印並剪下攢盒。將賀年食品都放進去。

    盒蓋

    盒身

  6. 好啦!可以招待親友啦~
賀歲攢盒 繁體版 贺岁攒盒 简体版

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

Greetings in Chinese

Many parents have written to us about our article on Chinese greetings, asking for pronunciations of the greetings.
Below is the same list with pinyin added.

日常的問候語 Everyday greetings

日常招呼/問候
Everyday salutation
  • 早安 /zǎo ān/!
  • 你好 /nǐ hǎo/!(叔叔 /shū shu /好!阿姨 /ā yí/好!XXX好!)
  • 午安/wǔ ān/!
  • 晚上好/wǎn shàng hǎo/!
  • 晚安 /wǎn ān/!
  • 多謝 /duō xiè/!(謝謝你 /xiè xiè nǐ/!)
  • 對不起 /Duì bù qǐ/!
  • 請問… /qǐng wèn/
  • 再見 /zài jiàn/!拜拜 /bài bài/!
家中有親友來看望
When friends come to your home
  • 歡迎 /huān yíng/!
  • 請進 /qǐng jìn/!
  • 請坐 /qǐng zuò/!
  • 請喝水 /qǐng hē shuǐ/!(捧水/茶要兩隻手喔 Offer drinks with both hands)
逢年過節的時候...
Holidays & festivals
  • XX節快樂 /xx jié kuài lè/!(聖誕節 /shèng dàn jié/ 端午節 /duān wǔ jié/ 中秋節 /zhōng qiū jié/ 情人節 /qíng rén jié/…)
  • 新年快樂 /xīn nián kuài lè/!
送禮物給朋友時
When you give a present
  • 希望你喜歡。/xī wàng nǐ xǐ huān/
  • 小小意思,不成敬意。/xiǎo xiǎo yì si, bù chéng jìng yì/
個別情況
Individual situations
  • (需要道歉時 apologise) 對不起!/duì bù qǐ/
  • (請人讓路 ask to get past someone) 不好意思!請讓一讓!/bù hǎo yì si, qǐng ràng yī ràng/
  • (收到禮物 when receiving presents) 多謝 /duō xiè/!謝謝/xiè xiè/!
  • (回答別人對你感謝 when people thank you) 沒關係 /méi guān xì/!不用謝 /
    bù yòng xiè/!不必客氣 /bù bì kè qì/!
  • (用餐起筷前 at the start of a meal) [xx長輩] 吃飯 /xxx(the senior person) /chī fàn/!
在歡樂喜慶的日子 On happy days

 生日 Birthdays 

  • 生日快樂!/shēng rì kuài lè/
  • 年年有今日,歲歲有今朝!/nián nián yǒu jīnrì, suì suì yǒu jīnzhāo/
  • 福如東海!壽比南山! (老人家生日) /fú rú dōng hǎi, shòu bǐ nán shān/ (for elderly people's birthdays)

 婚禮 Weddings 

  • 恭喜!/gōng xǐ/
  • 永結同心!/yǒng jié tóng xīn/
  • 白頭到老!/bái tóu dào lǎo/
在所難免的難過日子 Unavoidable sad days

 探病 Visiting the ill 

  • 早日康復!/zǎo rì kāng fù/
  • 保重身體!/bǎo zhòng shēn tǐ/

 喪禮 Funeral 

  • 節哀順變 /jié āi shùn biàn/

You may also like to play the Chinese greetings chatterbox game for more practice with your children.

Chinese Greetings Chatterbox

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.

JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)

We’d love to hear from you.

何以見得⋯?

當我們說起一些很常用但本身又不帶甚麼意思的字,大家都會舉例:
「的的、了了,之乎者也囉。」

其實,這裏還有一個毫不起眼卻又很常用的字:

原來,「以」是一個象形字,意思是「用來做⋯、當作⋯、認為⋯」。例如:以牙還牙、以一擋十。

「以」也可以是一個連接詞,例如:以前、以來、以內⋯

「以」字有點抽象,不能單獨一個字讓孩子理解,更沒辦法用一張認圖看字卡去學習。以句子的形式和應用實例就比較容易理解。

「以」字在萌芽級第五冊教授,在整個思展方程式課程中出現過的形式有:以前,以後,可以,以為,所以,以外。

吃東西以前要洗手。 萌芽級
洗手以後就吃點心。 萌芽級
小蟲長大以後是美麗的蝴蝶。 躍進級
可以做成很多東西。 躍進級
石橋上面可以走車子。 躍進級
蝴蝶以為這朵花是真的。 躍進級
因為到晚上了,
所以大家要睡覺了。
信心級
除了桌子以外
我們還要搬什麼?
實力級

「以」還是一個部件,可以配上其他部首:

  • 似 - 相似
  • 姒 - (古代美人周幽王王后)褒姒 / 古代稱姐姐

簡體中文會利用「以」字作為形聲字:

  • 拟 =擬
  • 苡 =薏 (米)
  • 笖 =笋

「以」+方向

以+東 / 南 / 西 / 北 / 左 /右:從所說點算起的那個方向的範圍

/以:一張清單或數量的範圍

/以:時間的先或後

:從所說的時間或事件起計的期間

:過去

其他詞例及英文翻譯參考

由「以」字組成的詞很多,以下所列的是包含在思展方程式課程範圍之內、或較容易讓小朋友理解的詞彙:

不以為然not to accept as correct
不以為意not to mind, unconcerned
何以見得how can you be sure?
難以相信hard to believe, incredible
信以為真to take something to be true
難以自已cannot control oneself, to be beside oneself
有生以來since birth
不知所以to not know the reason
習以為常accustomed to
數以百計hundreds of
學以致用to study something to put it to use
以牙還牙,以眼還眼a tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye
我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.