動詞和顏色的練習

我們之前 有一篇文章曾經提及《反斗歌》集中教小朋友三種詞類:

  • 名詞
  • 動詞
  • 形容詞

要讓孩子明白動詞很容易。在他們這個年紀最常用的動詞都是身體部份的動作:主要是手、腳、眼、耳、口、鼻。
而最基本、實在的形容詞之一就是顏色。

孩子到了躍進級,已學會了一大堆的動詞和顏色字。要掌握認讀,可以利用閱讀練習卡玩遊戲。
要學以致用,我們為小朋友製作了練習紙。

躍進級寶貝盒中的「冬冬打蟲」故事,更是集中運用了大批動詞和顏色字。
家長和孩子閱讀這本故事書時,可以細心地為孩子指出,引導他們留意。

以下介紹兩個相關的遊戲活動,包括有免費下載的資源。

閱讀練習卡的活動

圖中:

  • 藍色的字卡是啟蒙級教的顏色字
  • 綠色的字卡是萌芽級教的顏色字
  • 橙色的字卡是躍進級教的顏色字
 活動方法 

從家中的日常用品或孩子的玩具當中挑選這些顏色的物品,讓孩子將字卡與顏色配對。隨時可以玩喔。

20個動詞集中練習

我們從「冬冬打蟲」的故事書中,抽取了20個動詞,製成了6頁生動有趣的動詞紙,讓小朋友可以集中溫習。

另外還有6頁練習紙,對於較為年長的孩子,家長可以選擇在合適的時候讓孩子做練習:

  • 年幼的孩子:家長可以將下載文件最後兩頁的生字一一剪下,讓孩子放到正確的位置
  • 「發現」一詞有兩個字,家長可以先放下其中一個字,協助孩子
  • 若家中購有閱讀練習卡,可以用字卡代替練習紙的生字,讓孩子做配對,加深認讀練習
  • 年長的孩子,若已能握筆寫字,可以直接在練習紙上抄寫(或默寫)正確答案
  • 可以多次印刷練習紙反複練習 (最好相隔一段時間)
我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。

要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

If you would like us to discuss certain topics on Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

 

Academic traditions in China

We are now at the time of the year where families begin to gear up and prepare for the new academic year. Whether this is met with enthusiasm or despair in your household, the back to school season is a particularly exciting one.  Children get ready to spend another year educating and cultivating themselves – while of course, making friends and memories in the process.

It goes without saying that all nations have their own traditions and philosophy with regards to education.  Here, we’ll share a few ways Chinese approaches certain milestones in a student’s life, such as the first day of school and graduation.

The first day of school

In modern day China, the first day of school is 1 September, although most schools elect to start on the first Monday of September. Like in most other countries, the first day of school consists of the regular activities: receiving new timetables, meeting new classmates and greeting the teachers.

Early in the past century, a tradition would be for students to bring a few presents to their teachers on the first day. Each student would bring three things: garlic, celery, and green onion.

Why these three items? Well, they were all play on words.

Garlic, is 蒜 (suàn) in Chinese which is the same sound as算, meaning maths.

Green onion, is 蔥 (cōng) in Chinese which is the same sound as 聰 in 聰明, meaning clever or with wit.

Celery, 芹 (qín) in Chinese which is the same sound as 勤, meaning diligent and hard working.

能算、會勤、plus 聰明 were considered the three main “ingredients” to a student’s success. These three gifts serve as a symbolic commitment as well as good fortune for the student throughout the coming school year.

Nowadays, the students are usually addressed by the headmaster and a star pupil, both of whom deliver eloquent speeches about their devotion to their school, gratitude for the teachers, and commitments to ambition and success.

Graduation

Graduation is a momentous occasion for students, parents and teachers alike, as students move on from their current phase of education. At a university graduation ceremony – like in many other nations – students are handed their hard-earned diplomas, and teachers deliver celebratory speeches, congratulating students for their efforts. While most students wear traditional academic, black robes for their graduation, it is also not uncommon for them to wear qipao, Chinese traditional dress.

What is more specific to China, however, is the 謝師宴: the banquet to thank the teachers. This happens usually at high school or university graduations. Here, students all chip in to book a banquet, and invite all the teachers who have taught them throughout the years to attend. Students might prepare a talent show, and deliver a speech to formally thank all the teachers. Teachers would also express their good wishes for the students moving forward.

Although after this banquet, students and teachers are considered equals, since the students are now adults and members of the society, there is this saying: “一日為師,終身為父” in Chinese. It means if someone is your teacher for even a single day, s/he will be like your parent for the rest of your life. Students are forever in the teachers’ debt.

Some study-related Idioms

There are many idioms in Chinese that encapsulate what it means and how it feels to be a student. Here are a couple:

十年寒窗
Literally, this means to study for ten years by a cold window. This idiom illustrates the hardships students are willing to endure and perseverance it takes to get through the long years of study. From this idiom comes the expression 同窗, which means ‘classmate’ or ‘schoolmate’ – someone who also sat by the same cold window with us for those years.
聞雞起舞
This idiom means to start practicing at the sound of the cockerel’s first crow. It describes is the act of self-discipline and being diligent in one’s studies, of being so committed that one would begin practicing and studying at the break of dawn every day.

As you can see from the above image, in each of the above idioms, there is one character that is not included in Basic Chinese 500. (The ones included in the syllabus are shown in proper Study Cards.)

Why not take this opportunity and learn them?

Here, let us show you their proper pinyin and writing sequences (click on image to enlarge):

Pinyin: /hán/
Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese are written in the same way.

Pinyin: /wén/
Traditional Chinese version

Pinyin: /wén/
Simplified Chinese version

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擴充孩子的詞彙:反義字組詞 Expand your child’s Chinese vocabulary

漢語漢字有不少特色:成語疊詞破音字部首... 我們的部落格亦有不少文章個別討論。

利用反義字組成另一個全新意義的詞語,亦是漢語的一個特色。

要擴充孩子的詞彙庫,不斷學習新的字詞當然是不可或缺的方法。

與此同時,以孩子已掌握的漢字教導他們認識全新的詞彙,也是有效的方法。利用他們已懂的字意,引導他們理解個別字詞可以怎樣進一步引伸出新的詞語和意義,藉此可以觸發他們對語文變化和發展的認識,啟發他們的思維認知,幫助他們靈活掌握字詞的用法。

這次我們從思展方程式課程中挑選了10組反義詞,作為讓孩子認識這類組詞的入門。同時亦加上英文翻譯,為有需要的家長/教師作為參考。


You might have learnt some distinct features of the Chinese language from our other blog posts, such as idioms, die-ci (reduplication), homographs, radicals, etc.

In this post, we discuss another feature: forming a new word by combining two antonyms.

Learning new characters is no doubt a great way to expand a child’s vocabulary. However, you can also introduce new words to your child based on characters they have already learnt, since Chinese words are but combinations of characters. Introducing new words this way helps them understand the relationship between the new word and the words they already knew. It can also stimulate their linguistic understanding and deepen their comprehension of not only the language, but also of the culture and the people’s mentality.

Here, we have chosen twenty characters from the Sagebooks curriculum which form ten new words. This serves as an introduction to this method of forming words.

字(1) Word 1 字(2) Word 2 新組詞 New Word
Big Small 大小 Size
Square Round 方圓 Perimeter
High Low 高低 comparative strength
Right Wrong 是非 Trouble
Pain / Suffer Fast / Happy 痛快 Delighted, To one's heart's content
Early / Morning Late / Night 早晚 Sooner or later
Left side Right side 左右 To influence
Out In 出入 Discrepancy / Exit and Entrance
Long Short 長短 Length
Many Few 多少 How many? / A certain amount or extend

免費下載 FREE Download

這十組詞語有免費練習紙活動供下載。備有家長參考的字表(上圖,含繁、簡版).
We have prepared summary sheets of these 10 words, in both Traditional and Simplified Chinese versions, for free download.

預製小字卡,可剪下來讓孩子靈活個別學習。
Pre-print word cards: simply cut them out and let your child play with them to become familiar with them.

亦有活動練習小詞卡,讓孩子字首、字尾練習組詞。將下面的材料每個字剪下來,做成小字卡,放在上圖詞卡的正確位置。
Activity word cards let your child practice the beginning or the end of each word. You could also cut out each character (below) and ask your child to put them at the correct position on the word cards.

下載反義字組詞練習紙
DOWNLOAD WORKSHEET

當然你也可以用閱讀練習卡讓孩子練習各種組詞。

更多例子 Further examples

上述的10組引伸出來的詞語,它們的意義其實都與其中的兩個字有着關連。當你向孩子慢慢解釋和討論,不難引發出他對語文興趣。

反斗歌圖書集中讓孩子練習同義詞和反義詞,孩子在閱讀中掌握了其中的奧妙,就不難進一步理解更多的詞語,例如:

  • 坐立難安
  • 哭笑不得
  • 戲假情真
  • 出生入死
  • 天長地久
  • 東成西就
  • 先苦後甜 …

這些都是在思展方程式課程範圍之內教授的字喔。

要是你或孩子對反義詞感興趣,歡迎參閱:看漫畫學反義詞 Antonym Challenge (in comic)


The meanings of the above 10 words are related to each of the characters in the word. Please take the time to explain each of them to your child. It will spark their interest to learn more of the language, or languages on the whole.

Flip-Flop Fun is a set of books that focuses on the study of antonyms and synonyms. It helps your child to learn more words such as those listed in the above table.

All of those characters are taught in the Sagebooks curriculum.

For more reading activity on antonyms, please read:看漫畫學反義詞 Antonym Challenge (in comic)

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。

要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

If you would like us to discuss certain topics on Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

 

Emotional Intelligence – expressing emotions in Chinese

Emotional intelligence is the ability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and that of others. It also includes people’s ability to discern between different types of emotions, appropriately label them, and use this information to adjust to their environment in order to achieve their goals.

Why are we talking about this? The first step in developing emotional intelligence is to correctly identify emotions and to do that, you need to know the words to describe them. Even if you’re only interested in getting your child to have basic daily conversation in Chinese, knowing the correct Chinese terms for emotions is very necessary. After all, talking about how they feel is a normal part of general conversation.

You could get away with just teaching your child some basic rote responses to questions like, “How are you?”. Even in Anglophone societies, no one actually expects a real, truthful answer the question beyond, “Fine, and you?”. However, if you want your child to be able to effectively communicate their thoughts and feelings in Chinese, they will need to go beyond the basics. They will need access to the full spectrum of human emotions (or at the very least, be able to identify them). This will equip our children with the tools to navigate socially and thus be aware of others, and also to name their own emotions and thus be more self-aware.

 Basic Emotions  

In psychology, there is a general theory that there are only four basic biological emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. For a quick review, here are some ways to say these terms in Chinese:

Happy 快樂
Sad 難過
Angry 生氣
Scared 害怕

While it may be tempting to teach your child the emotion while they’re experiencing it, it may not stick so well in their brain unless they’re feeling happy. However, you can say things in Chinese like, “Oh, I’m sorry you’re feeling sad.” (嗯,我知道你很難過。) Even though they’re not officially learning the term, they are hearing it in its correct application.

In the following weeks, we will share activities with which you can teach your children basic emotion terms as well as harder, more complex phrases. In the meantime, you could probably start with the more common feelings such happy, sad, scared, and angry. Those tend to be the emotions we all feel on a regular basis anyway.

 Complex Emotions 

While basic emotions are easy to grasp, complex emotions are a little harder to explain but are just as necessary. Depending on the age and developmental stage of your children, these terms may be easier or harder to explain. But when in doubt, a story usually works! (Be sure to check out our article on the power of story to find out why.)

Using stories and books, you can illustrate the more complex emotions a person can experience to your children. For your easy reference, here are some of the more layered emotions and their Chinese counterparts.

Guilt 内疚(nèi jiù)
Shame 慚愧(cán kuì)
Despair 失望(shī wàng)、絕望(jué wàng)
Embarrassment 尷尬(gān gà)、難為情(nán wéi qíng)
Pride 自豪(zì háo)
Lonely 寂寞(jì mò)、孤單(gū dān)
Jealous 妒忌(dù jì)
Surprise 意外(yì wài)、驚訝 (jīng yà)

 Common Sayings re: Emotions 

If you want your child to be a little more advanced and culturally literate, you can also teach your child emotion-related idioms. While this isn’t vital, like many things, it will enrich your child’s Chinese vocabulary, making them sound more native in conversations. Plus, it will also illustrate the color and creativity of the Chinese language.

For instance, 吃醋literally means, “to eat vinegar.” It describes the situation of being envious that someone else is getting something that you’re not. Doesn’t eating vinegar adequately capture both the facial expression as well as the feeling itself? It’s also similar to the English idiom, “sour grapes” wherein a person disparages something they wanted but didn’t get. Isn’t it interesting that both of them have the same “sour” description?

For your reference, here are a few more Chinese idioms and phrases that relate to emotions. Some of them are quite vivid and fun for children to learn:

Emotion Chinese expression Literal translation
To feel sad 心酸 to feel sore in your heart
Worry 提心吊膽 carrying your heart and dangling your gut
Angry 發火 set off a fire
Scared 屁滾尿流 to piss in one's pants in terror
Shameless 死不要臉 doesn't care about losing one's face
Proud, Arrogant 自高自大 to praise one's own greatness
Happy 眉開眼笑 brows raised in delight, eyes laughing

Again, while your child can understand and explain their feelings without the usage of these terms, the fuller and more robust you can make your child’s vocabulary, the more likely they will use Chinese in everyday speech. We tend to default to whatever language we’re the most capable in to express ourselves. Teaching our children a range of emotional vocabulary will help them internally, socially, and with Chinese fluency.

Using the power of story to teach Chinese

Stories are one of the most powerful methods to teach our children ideas and language. There is a reason why all religions have stories at the center of them. Whether they are ancient creation myths to explain how the world happened or fables to teach morality lessons, stories are engaging, easy to remember, and an effective way to convey a message.

We can harness this same power in our efforts to teach our children Chinese.

 Use story to teach vocabulary  

Instead of endlessly drilling vocabulary or making our kids do worksheets, there are many ways we can use stories to do the same job. After all, which do you think your children will absorb with less resistance? Homework and flashcards, or listening to a book or watching a movie? 

Through fairy tales, picture books, and even movies - our children learn the names of colors, numbers, shapes, body parts, and anything else! There are even stories of how characters are formed and written to help our kids remember the shape of Chinese characters. 

The reason why Sagebooks curriculum is so effective at teaching new characters is because not only do the lessons build on one another, but there are several connecting narrative arcs. There are different families, pets, and side stories to teach specific vocabulary. 

The Treasure Box stories are longer and help supplement each set with additional practice and specialized vocabulary. The text and the illustrations work together to make a compelling narrative arc for our children to passively learn words as their brains are actively listening, engaging, and absorbing.

 Use stories to teach observation skills 

In addition to just basic vocabulary, we can help our children with their observational skills and comprehension by pointing out the words used in the descriptions of the environment, setting, characterization, and mood. If we want to link it our children’s daily lives, we can also reinforce the words they’re learning as we encounter them in life.

The more we can show our children that these terms and words are related and integral to their lives, the more our children can form links and connections in their brains. All these “sticky” moments will improve the chances of our kids remembering these new words and increase their Chinese comprehension.

 Use both translated and native author works 

There are so many excellent books for children nowadays. We can choose from both translated books and books written by native Chinese authors. The reason we should do both types - and perhaps emphasize native authors - is because the books serve different purposes.

Translated works are a great way to help your child be culturally relevant to their peers in Anglophone societies. Our kids will be able to keep up with the characters and stories their friends love (eg: Harry Potter, Magic Treehouse, Roald Dahl) but still be in Chinese. It’s a nice blend of the culturally familiar and Chinese. However, we run into the potential problem of poor translations or at the very least, translations that are accurate but perhaps don’t capture the spirit and beauty of the Chinese language.

Books by native authors are important because they use Chinese with a native syntax that translated works can’t exactly capture. The vocabulary is often harder, different, and sometimes foreign.

Both kinds are important to build up our children’s Chinese comprehension and make their available vocabulary more robust.

 Go beyond books 

Movies, TV shows, music, comic books, audio books, etc. can also tell stories.

When we think of stories, we often only consider the written medium. However, there are so many ways to tell stories. We can take advantage of technology and the ever-shrinking world to access all different kinds of media in Chinese. 

Movies, shows, and even music also tell stories and can capture the kids who don’t necessarily have the literacy to appreciate Chinese books. These are great for building up Chinese comprehension while being visually and auditorily engaging. 

Through all these different mediums, we can use the art and power of storytelling to help ease our kids into Chinese material and expose them to Chinese in ways that are not as intimidating as talking to people in Chinese or doing Chinese homework.

量詞的微妙之處 Subtlety of classifiers

正確使用量詞可以說是一門學問。量詞在語言學來說可以細分為9類。

名詞的數量遠遠比量詞要多,換句話說,同一個量詞會配不同的名詞使用。這類學習是最常見的,也就是我們平常教導孩子的「單位詞」。

另一方面,同一個名詞,能用的量詞亦往往不止一個。用上了不同的量詞時,表達的意思會有差異。準確地使用量詞,能更明徹地表達一些不言而喻的含意,加強溝通。讓我們來看看以下的一些例子:


Classifiers are a vast topic in learning Chinese. Technically speaking, there are 9 types of classifiers.

As there are many more noun words than classifiers, it means that the same classifier is used for different nouns. It is common for children to practice the basic matches of various nouns and classifiers. This is what we usually start with when teaching children: the Numeratives (or Numerary Adjuncts).

While many nouns can share a common classifier, it is not unusual for the same noun to be used with various different classifiers. In that case, there are often subtle differences in the implied meanings of each different classifier. The accurate use of classifiers is therefore important in effective communication. Below are some examples:

名詞 量詞(1) 量詞(2)
月亮 明月
(這月亮是圓的)
月亮
(今晚的是娥媚月)
白雲
(這雲是一團團的、塊狀的)
白雲
(這雲比較稀薄,面積可大可小)
手/鞋 手/鞋
(只有一隻)
手/鞋
(有兩隻,而且是成對的)
草地 草地
(面積較小,例如在公園裏)
草地
(面積比「一塊草地」要大,可能在山上、河邊...)

(大多是小刀,也可以是大刀)

(是大刀,可以用來砍伐)

(一般描述)

(大多含有貶義,或有點可憐)

(指書本身)

(不是指書,而是指寫成了書的作品,屬於抽象名詞)

孩子在認識了基本量詞的基礎上,再認識和掌握到不同量詞的含意,他們的閱讀理解能力自然會更得到提升。

For additional activities to get your children started practicing classifiers 量詞, please read our other post Fun Ways to practice Chinese Classifiers which offers three fun games.

片 & 張

「張」和「片」的使用有些共通處:相關的名詞物品都比較上薄、有面積。但它們也都會用於其他名詞。
以下是這兩個量詞分別常用的名詞列單,大多數都在基礎漢字500課程之內:

  1. 一般用在薄薄的,有一定硬度的東西:一片餅乾、一片樹葉。
  2. 有時也會帶有「連綿不斷」的感覺:一片大海、一片草原、 一片土地。
  3. 除了實物,「片」還會用在一些抽象名詞上:一片笑聲、一片光明、一片希望、一片黑暗
  1. 和紙張有關的東西:一張照片、一張畫、一張紙、一張名片、一張票。
  2. 形容有一定面積,基本上屬於薄的東西:一張被子、一張床單、一張桌布。
  3. 一些身體部位:一張臉、一張嘴、一張手
  4. 其他:一張弓、一張桌、一張椅

張 and 片 share some common "properties": they are used for objects which are thin and broad. At the same time, they are also used for other nouns.

In the above examples,  片 can be used for: 

  1. something that is thin, such as biscuits (crackers) or leaves
  2. something that's vast and goes on and on, such as the ocean, the meadow, the land
  3. apart from concrete objects, 片 can also be used with abstract nouns, such as laughter, light, hope, darkness.
 張 is often used for: 
  1. paper related objects, such as photo, picture, paper, name card, ticket
  2. something relatively thin and broad: blanket, bed sheet, table cloth
  3. body parts such as the face, the mouth, and the hand
  4. other commonly nouns that use 張 include: bow, table, chair

閱讀練習

要掌握量詞的運用,最好的方法是多讀、多用。以下是為信心級實力級小朋友特別編寫的一首小詩,集中練習「片」字的運用。

歡迎下載、列印,讓小朋友高聲朗讀~

The best way to grasp the use of classifier is through extensive reading and practices. Below is a little poem that focuses on the use of 片, written especially for children who are studying Confident Reader or Fluent Reader. Please feel free to download and print it out for your child to practice reading out loud ~

简体版 (右撃下载)

繁體版 (右撃下載)

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。

要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

If you would like us to discuss certain topics on Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

 

「不」vs 「沒」: 一字之差的心態

現在的家長也許很少對孩子說「不」了,大多數會說「NO」吧。(當然,在對話情況下還是會說「不行」、「不可以」、「唔得」⋯)

英文的一個「NO」字,中文卻不是簡單的一個「不」字喔。另一個相等份量的字是「沒」。

對於已在學習躍進級的孩子,可以集中認識一下這兩個字不同的用法。


Even among the Chinese community, it is very common for parents nowadays to use “NO” to their children. Although in many conversations, one would still often say「不行」、「不可以」、「唔得」⋯

Translating the English “no” into Chinese is often more than a simple “不”. Another commonly used word is “沒”.

If your child is on Building Reader level, you could try to point out the various uses and the differences between these two words.

If you are interested to learn more about YES/NO in Chinese, please read our other article “YES or NO – Simple questions?“.

I. 提問的時候 Asking questions

當動詞或形容詞加上「不」或「沒」,就會變成一句問句。下面是一些例子:

When you add “不” or “沒” to a verb or an adjective, it turns into a question. Below are some examples:

動詞/形容詞「不」/「沒」例句
好不好我們一起玩,好不好?
在不在媽媽在不在家?
想不想你想不想去公園玩?
吃不吃小貓吃不吃菜?
是不是今天是不是星期一?
去不去小明去游泳,你去不去?
有沒有這裏有沒有人?
高不高他長得高不高?
熱不熱你穿那麼多。熱不熱?
好吃好(吃)不好吃面包好(吃)不好吃?
喜歡喜(歡)不喜歡你喜(歡)不喜歡學校的老師?
上面的例子中,只有「有」字會和「沒」字一起用呢。

Have you noticed that in the examples above, only the word “有” is used with “沒”?

II. 不 vs 沒

其實很多字都可以和「不」字也可以和「沒」字一起用,但是兩種情況下的意思就不一樣了。看看下面的例子。

In fact, many words can be used with either “不” or “沒”. However, their respective meanings changed. Let us compare the examples below.

不看 - 我今天不看電視。 (這是我心中的計劃)沒看 - 我今天沒看電視。(到了晚上,回想這一天,事實上沒看)
不吃 - 我不吃糖。沒吃 - 大家都在吃糖,可是小明沒吃。
不說 - 我問她在看甚麼書,她不說。沒說 - 媽媽出去的時候沒說要去哪裏。

III. 比較兩天的情況 2 very different days

上星期一,妹妹...

  • 沒吃水果
  • 沒看書
  • 沒去公園玩
  • 沒到海邊去玩沙
  • 沒聽笑話
  • 沒去草地上看星

原來妹妹生病了。Little Sister was ill.

今天,妹妹...

  • 吃了水果
  • 看了三本書
  • 和小貓去了公園玩
  • 和姐姐到了海邊去玩沙
  • 聽了一個笑話
  • 去了草地上看星

多麼美好的一天啊!What a wonderful day!

歡迎下載故事,做成迷你書,讓小朋友自己閱讀這兩個故事。(點擊圖片即可下載)

    

迷你書製作方法

IV. 一字之差的心態 Change 1 character, create a different mindset

和孩子說話的時候,你要用「不」還是「沒」呢?比較一下

Do you regularly use "不" or "沒" when speaking to your children? Let’s compare.

消極心態積極心態
我不看書我今天還沒看書。等一會兒看。
我不吃這水果我沒吃過這水果,想試一口。
你不會唱歌你沒會唱歌,慢慢學。
你不會游泳你沒會游泳,可以學。
我不坐飛機我沒坐過飛機,有機會要坐坐。
我不聽我還沒聽你說。也許你有你的道理。

一字之差,可以形成不同的心態喔。這就是文字的力量。
讓我們來教孩子,以積極的心態過每一天,為自己創造積極的人生吧。

By changing only 1 character, a different mindset is formed. This is the power of words.
Let us show our kids the way to have a positive mindset each day and a positive outlook to their lives!

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。

要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

我想提問

 

破音字總匯

「獨樂樂不如眾樂樂」大家中學時學的一句話,還記得嗎?(出自《孟子.梁惠王下》喔)。

當中的四個「樂」字,該怎麼唸呢?

dú yuè lè bù rú zhòng yuè lè

第一個和第三個「樂」字,意思是「欣賞音樂」。
第二個和第四個「樂」字,意思是「快樂」。

那麼,「仁者樂山,智者樂水」

這兩句話中的「樂」字又該怎麼唸呢?
這裏的「樂」字應作第三種讀音:/yào/ (粵音:ngauu6,與「敬業樂業」中的「樂」字一樣)
這些同一個字有幾種讀法,各自的意思和詞性又截然不同的,我們稱之為 破音字 

破音字在漢語中佔有重要的角色。這些字的語音和語意會起變化,我們必須仔細辨認。破音字也為文字遊戲加添了趣味。

在基礎漢字500課程中,共有30多個破音字。以下是一個總匯,家長可作為參考,在適當的時候為小朋友指出。

我們另有文章,專題介紹一些教導孩子認識破音字的遊戲

喔,對了... 上圖中的那句話:「打中了中間的的」應該唸作:/dǎ zhòng le zhōng jiān de dì/ (最後一個「的」指的是「目的/目標」)

啟蒙級的破音字

漢字發音(1)詞例發音(2)詞例
shuō說話 /shuō huà/ 小說 /Xiǎo shuō/shuì遊說 /yóu shuì/
shén甚麼 /shén me/shèn甚至 /shèn zhì/
hǎo安好 /ān hǎo/hào好奇 /hào qí/
kàn看見 /kàn jiàn/ 小看 /xiǎo kàn/kān看守 /kān shǒu/ 看門口 /kān mén kǒu/
yào需要 /xū yào/yāo要求/yāo qiú/
huì會面 /huì miàn/kuài會計 /kuài jì/
幾個 /jǐ gè/幾乎 /jī hū/
méi沒有 /méi yǒu/沒落 /mò luò/
le去過了 /qù guò le/liǎo了解 /liǎo jiě/
cháng長短 /cháng duǎn/zhǎng生長 /shēng zhǎng/

* 簡體「甚至」並不改寫為「什至」。

萌芽級的破音字

漢字發音(1)詞例發音(2)詞例
zhe穿着衣服 /chuān zhe yī fú/zháo睡着了 /shuì zháo le/ 着迷 /zháo mí/
發音(3)zhuó穿着/chuān zhuó/ 着落 /zhuó luò/
hái還有 /hái you/huán歸還 /guī huán/
zhōng中文 /zhōng wén/ 中間 /zhōng jiān/zhòng打中 /dǎ zhòng/ 中獎 /zhòng jiǎng/
xìng高興 /gāo xìng/ 興趣 /xìng qù/xīng興建 /xīng jiàn/ 興奮 /xīng fèn/

*「着」字有三個發音。

躍進級的破音字

漢字發音(1)詞例發音(2)詞例
快樂 /kuài lè/yuè音樂 /yin yuè/
chē火車 /huǒ chē/車 (象棋棋子) /jū/
gèng更多 /gèng duō/gēng更衣室 /gēng yī shì/ 夜靜更深 /Yè jìng gēng shēn/
發音(3)jīng三更半夜* /sān jīng bàn уè/
jiān房間 /fáng jiān/ 時間 /shí jiān/jiàn間斷 /jiàn duàn/
piào漂亮 /piào liang/piāo漂流 /piāo liú/
huà圖畫 /tú huà/huà繪畫 (粵語破音)
shù數字 /shù zì/shǔ數 (動詞) /shǔ/

* 「三更半夜」在現代普通話亦有讀作 /sān gēng bàn уè/
* 「畫」字粵語是破音,動詞與名詞發音不一樣

信心級的破音字

漢字發音(1)詞例發音(2)詞例
zhòng種田 /zhòng tián/zhǒng種子 /zhǒng zǐ/
xíng不行 /bù xíng/háng銀行 /yín háng/

實力級的破音字

漢字發音(1)詞例發音(2)詞例
xiào學校 /xué xiào/jiào校對 /jiào duì/
shǎo多少 /duō shǎo/shào少年 /shào nián/
奇怪 /qí guài/奇數 /jī shù/
jiǎ真假 /zhēn jiǎ/jià假日 /jià rì/
sǎo打掃 /dǎ sǎo/sào掃把 /sào bǎ/
nán困難 /kùn nán/nàn發難 /fā nàn/ 有難同當 /yoǔ nàn tóng dāng/
抹黑 /mǒ hēi/抹桌子 /mā zhuō zi/
zhòng重要 /zhòng yào/chóng重新 /chóng xīn/

下載練習紙

我們製作了免費下載的總匯表,方便家長隨時作為參考。

下載繁體版《破音字總匯表》

總匯表分級整理,備有繁體和簡體版。

下载简体版《破音字总汇表》

我們會陸續發佈各種趣味性的練習紙,讓孩子遊戲學習。
要是你有特別的漢字或語文課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。
我想提問

 

Linguistic and cognitive developments through reading comics

Many parents and educators consider comics to be a less desirable use of our children’s time. Often maligned as trashy or a waste of brain space, in truth, reading comics benefits our children in many ways - some of which are related to heightened reading ability and comprehension.

Comics is a visual art consisting of picture grids that show a story expressed in the order of the pictures and thus sometimes referred to as "sequential art."

It plays an important role in the relationship between pure visual art and written literature and can be said to be the oldest writing communication tool for human beings. If you look at ancient artifacts from China and Egypt, you can see how this was true.

While we do not suggest your children ONLY read comics - and of course, only age-appropriate content, using your kids’ innate attraction to comics can be a very “sneaky” way to help your child level up their Chinese (and English) reading abilities.

Let’s delve into how sequential art works in our brains (and thus the brains of our children).

The relationship between comic strips and brain development

Comics clearly shows the successive causal relationship between images and text and helps form a vivid map in the brain. Just as we use image coding to reorganize and process our memories during dreaming, when we read comics, it helps us understand and construct new causality concepts through imaginative reorganization. The cognitive development of this brain activity on the brain is even more pronounced among children.

The relationship between pictures and films and words

There are big differences between reading a graphic novel and watching a movie. When watching films, our brains are more passive. The director and actors already interpret the script (text) so our imagination is restricted. The images, movement, sound, and story are pre-packaged for our easy consumption.

But when we enter the world of sequential art, everything is alive: your inner voice is responsible for reading the text and you directly assume all the roles, even the narrator. You are like a director who rules a team of actors and directs them to ride on the stage in your mind. At the same time, your eyes can freely swim on the paper before and after, and repeat the one-page portrait as you like.

The line blurs between what happens on paper and our brains. In this way, as a reader, we can get a gripping experience, and reading a comic book becomes an entertaining personal experience.

Comic strip and language development

The brains of pre-adolescent children are very active in mapping but if they don’t actively develop and practice visual art, the ability will gradually degenerate and disappear.

Of course, the role of sequential art in the language development area of the brain has yet to be studied, but many experiments show people who are good at visual art also have a high level of language development.

How Comics Increases Children’s Reading Abilities

Keeping in mind the above concepts, we can easily see how comics can be a really beneficial way to increase our children’s Chinese reading comprehension and abilities. Let’s take a look at some patterns we find in children:

1. Interesting and easy reading can lead to more serious, formal reading

While it may seem unbearably far off, complex books and plotlines are not usually an easy entry-point for children as they are still developing their reading skills. Since comics contain fun pictures and a lot fewer Chinese characters, it is a lot less intimidating for your children to pick up and try.

Once your child sees that the stories are funny, exciting, and interesting, they will want to read more. The more they read Chinese characters (and use the pictures to guess characters for words they can’t recognize), the more their Chinese will improve - sometimes high enough to read more advanced Chinese books.

2. Children who read a lot of comic books read in higher volumes

Truthfully, it doesn’t much matter what your children are reading as long as they are reading. Regardless of format, the more your children read and level-up their character recognition, the more they will read in general.

Reading books become habit and if it truly bothers you, you can always slowly substitute comics with books that have fewer pictures and more text. There are many Chinese bridge books that have a combination of pictures with longer chapters that can gradually replace comics.

3. Reading comics can improve the overall interest of reading

Just like you probably become more interested in doing things if you like the subject, graphic novels show your child that there are exciting worlds in books. These early experiences with complicated storylines, imagination, and visualizing what the text represents will help your kids make the intellectual leap that reading in general is fun.

4. Building confidence and deepen interest

Reading graphic novels can improve children's confidence in autonomous reading, boost self-esteem, and deepen interest in subjects and reading in general.

As we mentioned earlier, because comics include both pictures and text, if your child cannot read every single character, they still can figure out the gist of the story - and perhaps guess the Chinese characters - based on the illustrations alone. The more they practice and succeed at reading these “easier” books, the more they will believe that they can read more complicated books.

Competence breeds confidence.

5. Build vocabulary and expand subjects of interest

Children can acquire more advanced vocabulary, new terms, and subjects of interest from reading comics.

If your child is deeply intrigued by the comics, then they will quickly decode the terms they do not currently understand. Whether they stop and look up words, ask you, or just skip over and guess from context, this process builds new connections in their brains and increases their Chinese reading comprehension.

Has your child ever surprised you with just how much they figured out from context? The same concept applies as their desire to decipher the story supercedes their desire to be lazy.

Children learn to read successfully with Basic Chinese 500 and Treasure Box partly due to the engaging illustrations. We also created a series of comics that your child can practice on!

「就」字的三個練習

【講媽 . 講爸】FB 群組中曾有家長提出小朋友對「就」字感到難以理解。

「就」是一個比較抽象的字,它主要有三種詞性:

詞性 例子
動詞
  • 遷就
  • 就學
  • 東成西就
副詞
  • 寶寶一看不見媽媽就哭了
  • 滿天烏雲,就要下雨了
  • 要是不走快點,就會遲到
介詞
  • 就事論事

對小朋友來說,比較常用的是當副詞的用法。他們會碰到的主要有幾個意思:

  1. [立刻/馬上] 滿天烏雲,就要下雨了 / 雞蛋在桌上滾,就要掉下來了
  2. [ 一...就... (= 差不多同一時間)] 寶寶一看不見媽媽就哭了 / 小狗一看見我就會搖尾巴
  3. [只有] 就剩下一個了 / 他就一張嘴巴說得好聽

以下我們設計了幾個遊戲,可以增加孩子對「就」字的掌握。

1. 利用字卡學習 [就 = 快要] 的用法

 句子結構 

(名詞) + 就要 + 動詞 + []

例句:

  • 就要
  • (天) 就要下雨
  • 小鳥就要飛走
  • 春天就要
 道具 
  • 字卡
    • 由你先想好句子,選出合用的名詞和動詞,再選好"就" / "要" / "了" 三張字卡)
    • 名詞和動詞都應該是孩子已會認讀的字
 遊戲方法 

   

  1. 將 "就" / "要" / "了" 三張字卡排在孩子面前,"了"字前面要留有充裕的空間
  2. 將名詞和動詞分成兩組,你先從名詞組抽出合同的字,例如:花,放在 "就要" 前面
  3. 你再從動詞組中選出合用的字,例如:開,放在 "了" 字前面
  4. 請孩子將短句讀出來
  5. 將兩組字卡分別交給孩子,由孩子來組句子
 遊戲變化 
  1. 視乎孩子的能力,可以由你先將句子讀出來,讓孩子找出合用的字砌成句子,也可以你出名詞,讓孩子配上動詞,亦可以完全由孩子自己造句
  2. 可以請孩子抄寫下來,或是由你替他寫下來,也可以拍下照片
  3. 可以用自製的字卡。要是自製,可以將每個字寫在一張字卡上,也可以將整個詞語寫在一大張字卡上。例如:"春" "天" 分開寫,或是 "春天" 兩個字寫在一張雙倍長的字卡上。

2. 利用連線遊戲學習 [一...,就...] 的用法

 例句 
  • 我一來,妹妹就笑了。
  • 一下雨,大家就回家了。
  • 一有人來,小鳥就飛走了。
  • 老師一說,我們就明白了。
  • 天一亮,公雞就叫了。
 練習紙 

歡迎[點撃下圖]下載練習紙,讓孩子做連線的遊戲將前後兩個短句連起來,加深對句式的認識。

   繁體版

简体版   

這些句子所用的字都取自啟蒙級和萌芽級。要是孩子已學了更高級,你可以按他的水平再出其他的題目。

3. [就 vs 只] 的練習

 例句 

有些句子,[就]和 [只(有)] 可以對調使用:

  • 這裏我一個人 = 這裏只有我一個人
  • 吃了一個 = 我吃了一個

但有些情況就不能對調:

  • 我叫小狗坐下,小狗坐下。 [*我叫小狗坐下,小狗坐下。]
  • 你想出去,那出去吧。[*你想出去,那出去吧。]
 練習紙 

歡迎[點撃下圖]下載練習紙,看看哪些句子中的 [就] 可以和 [只] 對調的呢。

繁體版

简体版

你也可以按孩子的水平再出其他的題目讓孩子練習喔。

我們會陸續發佈各種趣味性的練習紙,讓孩子遊戲學習。
要是你有特別的漢字或語文課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。
我想提問

【講媽 · 講爸園地】為大家提供一個家長專屬的安全地帶,您可以提出各種與孩子學習相關的問題,就像這次的內容一樣。
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】

期待與你在群組內會面~