漢語拼音-不可不知的優勢 Important Benefits of Learning Pinyin

有沒有碰到過這樣的情況:你明明是知道那個字的,就是寫不出來。
啊,還好你知道它的普通話讀法,於是你拿出手機,用拼音輸入,屏幕顯示了幾個字,你一眼就認出了,問題解決了!
我每天寫好幾千個字,碰上這種情況還真不少。
我們中國人溝通,用的當然都是漢字。但在這華洋雲集、方言流通的時代,拼音倒也有它崇高的存在價值。
我們來看看。


Has the following ever happened to you:

You’re writing in Chinese and there is this character you don’t remember how to write. But you know how to say it. So you take out your smartphone and input the pinyin. Voila, it displays a few selections and you spot it at one glance. Problem solved!
As someone who writes thousands of words everyday, I myself have come across the above scenario multiple times.
While 漢字 (hanzi, Chinese characters) is the go-to medium for Chinese to communicate with each other, in this era of intense international interaction, pinyin has undeniably earned its place.

Let’s take a look.

(English version follows Chinese)

另一種語音書寫體系

拼音是羅馬字母和漢語語音的結合,而羅馬字母現時在世界大部分的地區都已廣為人知。從這個基礎上,對第一語言不是普通話的人來說,利用漢語拼音學習普通話或漢語都變得容易掌握了。

拼音在26個羅馬字母之上再加添了幾個獨有的聲母、韻母和四聲調,只要掌握了這些獨特的發音,外國人或其他方言的學生就能輕易學好準確的發音了。

拼音已成為漢語國際標準

1982年,國際標準化組織 (ISO) 將漢語拼音定為國際標準漢語;1986年,聯合國對漢語拼音亦作出了相同的認可。

顯然,拼音並不能取代漢字。但對於漢字能力不足的一大群海外長大的新一代華人來說,漢語拼音成為了這個環球華人社群中的一種溝通標準。

助長孩子的自信心

對於生活在海外、正開始學中文的孩子來說,無論他們本身是否中國人,他們最先要學的往往是自己的中文姓名。要是在這第一關就碰壁,就會影響了日後的學習信心。有了拼音的協助,他們就能準確說出自己的名字。這對正在發展自我認知的孩子來說很重要,因為自己的姓名是自己身分的第一個代表,拼音消除了語音隔膜,幫助孩子表達自己,加強孩子的自信心,讓他們更容易親近漢語。

中國人的姓氏對外國人來說,往往讀不準。拼音就可以打破這層障礙。在香港和台灣,不少人會以方言發音將自己的姓名羅馬字化;但絕大多數的中國人還是用普通話拼音向外國人自我介紹;即使有洋名,姓總是中國姓。拼音為我們的姓名提供了標準的依歸。

對於生於海外的中國孩子來說,拼音更是學漢語和電腦輸入打漢字的最簡易方法。當這些孩子到了中學、甚至大學,拼音就變得更實用了。無論是私人通訊或是面對考試,他們都可以輕易以文書處理表達自己要說的話。

為將來作準備

讓孩子從小學習拼音,有助為他們的將來作充份準備。當他們日後要報考大學,尤其是海外的大學,懂得拼音輸入法會為他們帶來優勢 (或最少不會落後)。很多海外大學的評核試,例如美國的AP test,拼音就是他們的官方認可輸入法。

而對於我們那些快要出來工作的年長孩子,學習拼音就更重要了。隨着眾多工業的電子化,操控電腦和電子儀器是重要的工作表現能力。所有人都必須具備漢字輸入能力,而拼音可以說是最簡易快捷的一種輸入法。

拼音固然有很多不足之處,不能取代漢字。但它可以為溝通帶來極大的便利,也可以成為有效的學習工具,值得我們的重視和採納。

思展出版 Sagebooks Publications

思展出版的所有圖書,無論是繁體版或簡體版,都附有漢語拼音。而思展製作的練習紙,要是使用了課程沒有教授的新漢字,亦都會註明拼音,方便家長輔導孩子、或是較年長的孩子自學。
有關思展出版的詳盡介紹,請瀏覽我們的官網:

瀏覽思展出版

A Romanised Phonological Recording System

Pinyin is a combination of Roman letters and Chinese phonetics. Nowadays, most people in this world are already familiar with the Roman alphabet. Pinyin uses the 26 letters of the alphabet, plus a few new digraphs (such as zh, an, ang) and the indication of the 4 intonations. Once you have mastered these basics, it becomes easy to learn how a character should be pronounced.

As someone whose first language is not Chinese, it has become easier to grasp Chinese through pinyin. Pinyin is also useful for those whose mother tongue is another dialect, such as Cantonese. It helps them to learn the standard pronunciation in Putonghua.

Pinyin Is an International Standard

In 1982, the International Organization for Standardization announced Pinyin as an international standard for Chinese. In 1986, the United Nations followed suit.

While pinyin can never replace 漢字 (we will discuss the reasons in a future post), for many new-generation Chinese across the globe, it has become a standard way to communicate.

Building a Child's Confidence in Self Expression

For young children learning Chinese, especially those from foreign countries, their Chinese names are often the first thing they learn. This is true whether the child is Chinese or not. Learning pinyin can help them pronounce their names correctly. It certainly helps boost their confidence and interest in learning the Chinese language.

A lot of people have difficulties pronouncing Chinese names correctly. Pinyin helps with this. Although in Hong Kong or in Taiwan, many people spell their names based on the pronunciation of their own dialects, most Chinese use pinyin as their Romanised version of their name. Pinyin has given us a standard way to tell others our name.

Nowadays, pinyin input has become a simple and standardised way to type Chinese. This is especially helpful for children who grow up overseas, when they reach high school, university, or beyond. They will be able to use pinyin with word processors to express themselves correctly in Chinese characters, both in formal situations or casual chats with friends.

Prepare your Child

Learning Pinyin at a young age can better prepare young children. When they are old enough to take the various standardized tests to get admitted to their desired universities, pinyin will put them at an advantage. For many standardized tests for the Chinese language, such as the Advanced Placement (AP) tests in America, Pinyin is the official computer input method that is admitted during the tests.

For our older children who will be entering the workforce, there are many reasons to learn pinyin. As industries become increasingly digitized, job performances are often evaluated based on individuals’ computer skills. It is becoming inevitable to learn various computer input methods. Pinyin is one of the easiest and fastest way to type Chinese, for both Chinese and foreign Chinese-learners.

Although Pinyin has many limitations on its own, its convenience in facilitating communication and learning is the one of the main reasons you should incorporate it into your children's Chinese learning journey.

Sagebooks Publications

All of Sagebooks publications incorporate Pinyin, both traditional and simplified Chinese versions. In the free downloadable practice sheets, Pinyin is also included for all characters that are not taught in the Basic Chinese 500 course.

For more information on our publications, please visit our home website:

Browse Sagebooks' Publications

 

Praise Your Child in Chinese 讚美和鼓勵你的孩子

"My boys suddenly refuse to speak Chinese with me. They're also reluctant to have Chinese lessons with me..." a friend said to me one day.

So we set off to investigate some possible causes, including a change of learning style as they are growing, the routine is no longer stimulating, etc. However, none of them seemed to be the true reason. Upon my suggestion, she had a tête-à-tête with her sons in an attempt to uncover the true reason. The findings were rather surprising.

"When you speak Chinese to us, you always tell us off," they told her. "You're much friendlier when you speak in English."

My friend realised that with Chinese being her mother tongue, she naturally uses it when she gets angry with her children. She doesn't know how to tell people off in English. On the other hand, she learnt quite many common praises in English: "You did well", "That's a great job", "Excellent", “I love you”....

Does this sound familiar? As a Chinese parent, many of us are probably brought up by parents setting high expectations upon us. Their love for us lies not in praises and sweet talks but in ceaselessly steering us towards improvements. Tiger parents, some may say. In everyday Chinese vocabulary, words of criticism just seem to be in a huge surplus over praises.

If Chinese is not your first language, do you sometimes find yourself inadequate using Chinese to boost your children’s confidence?

Here, we show you a collection of praises and words of encouragement. Please use them liberally whenever you or your children deserve a little dose of praise or a boost in confidence. You can also copy them out on to little notes to surprise and delight your children. As they all fall within the curriculum of Basic Chinese 500 (mostly the first three levels), they will be able to read and understand them, and know that Chinese is just as positive and loving as any other language.

有一天,一位身居海外在家教孩子中文的朋友苦惱地對我說:「不知道為什麼,我兩個兒子最近不肯跟我說中文,也不大願意上中文課。」

於是,我們一起希望找出原因:也許是他們成長到另一個階段了,所以學習模式改變了;也許他們覺得一直以來的學習方法有點沉悶了⋯。可是,這些都不像是真正的原因。後來,我建議她和孩子們坦誠地談一談。結果,真正原因讓我們誰都沒想到⋯ 孩子們說:

「你總是用中文來批評我們。」

「你說英文的時候慈祥多了。」

那位朋友這才意識到,因為中文是她的母語,每次她對孩子生氣,她自然地就會說中文。而和中文相比,英文好像就有很多現成可用的鼓勵話。她覺得,這可能就是文化的差異吧。

從小,我們的父母就對我們充滿了期望。他們對我們的愛,並不流露在言詞讚揚,而是在於孜孜不倦地指出我們的錯處,嚴格地要求我們改正、進步,達至臻美。像英語一般現成的讚美語,比方說 "You did well", "That's a great job", "Excellent", “I love you”....好像不多。你也有同感嗎?

其實不然。中文也有一大堆的讚美語,光就是基礎漢字500課程之內就有不少,以下只是部分的例子。不妨保存起來,下次要鼓勵或讚揚孩子的時候,隨時可以派上用場喔。

基礎漢字500的讚美語

了不起 太好了 很好看 不錯 第一名
成功啦! 太完美了 有成就 你一定行 高明
你是高手 真難得 有自信 有能力 太讓我感動了
我愛你 你讓我眼前一亮 高人一等 太動聽了! 很有天分
你是個天才 謝謝你 你的功勞最大 一流 好極了
你真行 對! 我對你有信心 做 / 寫 / 畫 得真漂亮 非常好

 

Please feel free to download the 1-page praise, post it somewhere eye catching, and use it liberally.

歡迎下載一頁讚美語,張貼在當眼之處,隨時隨地作為讚賞孩子的小提醒。你也可以抄到不同的小紙條上送給孩子,因為這些字都在基礎漢字500課程之內,孩子都能看得懂,體會到你對他的讚賞喔。

 

 

3×3 閱讀解碼

甚麼是 3x3 閱讀?

孩子學習閱讀的大腦活動和認知發展需求,簡要來說是三合一。這三個關鍵隨着孩子的成長各自成熟,同時又相互影響。

明白了其中的奧妙,你就可以從每個元素輔助孩子,最終成就三大關鍵的結合,讓他輕鬆掌握閱讀和理解,終身愛上閱讀和學習。

第一層:三個關鍵

閱讀 = 語文知識 + 文字解碼 +常識認知

第二層:每個關鍵的兩大元素

語文知識 = 認字 + 句法

文字解碼 = (漢字結構 + 語音) + 明白文字代表思想

常識認知 = 存在的事物 + 事物發生的因果關係

第三層:元素的定義

元素
定義
認字 看到漢字會讀出來並知道該漢字的含意。
句法 知道:

[這是我喜愛的書。] 正確
[這我書是喜愛的。] 不正確

漢字結構 + 語音 對筆劃、筆順、部首等漢字特點有基本認識,亦認識常用的音部字。
遇到從未見過的漢字,能利用這些基本知識推測其意思和讀法。
例如:能推測「摜」屬手部,是一種手部動作,讀音可能類似「慣」或「貫」。
明白文字代表思想 能識別圖象與文字的差異,明白文字記載着人們的思想言行。
存在的事物 知道自己身邊的所有事物都有獨特的名稱,包括動植物、行為、顏色、情況等。
事物發生的因果關係 例如:

早上 > 中午 > 黃昏 > 夜晚
穿校服 > 上學 > 上課 > 下課 > 放學 > 做功課
下雨 > 路面濕了
男孩撞到椅子 > 男孩 (而不是椅子) 很痛 > 男孩哭了

4 Fun Ways to Classical Chinese Poetry

As we discussed previously, knowledge of both classical and modern Chinese poetry is one way to learn new and creative applications of Chinese words. For the next two weeks, we’ll be doing activities to help our children learn about classical and modern Chinese poetry.

ACTIVITY OF THE WEEK

This week, we will be helping our children learn about the structure of some classical Chinese poems, the concept of rhyming, and the idea of painting images with words.

 

CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY ACTIVITIES - POETRY STRIPS

 WHAT YOU NEED 
  • Classical Chinese poems for reference
  • Paper/Pencil
 HOW TO PREPARE 
  • Write or print out several Chinese classical poems
  • Feel free to download some examples in Traditional Chinese or Simplified Chinese
  • Cut each line of poetry into its own strip of paper
  • Depending on how you plan to play, you may need to do this multiple times per poem, or even provide more than one poem.

   

Line Scramble (age 3+, single or multi person)

1. Mix up the strips of poetry lines
2. Have kids work together to put the lines in order

Alternatively, you can give each child a pile of poetry slips and have them see who is faster. To make it harder for older children, you can cut each poetry line in half to make more parts.

Fill in the Blanks (age 3+, single or multi person)

1. On the printed out poems, cover a few of the characters per line
2. Ask your child to fill in the blanks (either written or spoken)
3. You can take turns each blank, or hand out sheets and have them write it out.

You can make this easier for younger children by having the missing words written on the side for them to fill in. You can also put the missing words on cards so that it can be more interactive. To make the activity harder, you can add more blanks.

CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY ACTIVITIES - DRAW THE POEM

 WHAT YOU NEED 
  • Blank paper
  • Drawing utensils (pens, crayons, paint, etc.)

Draw the Poem (age 3+, single or multi person)

 HOW TO PLAY 

1. Read and explain the poem
2. Ask if children have any questions
3. Ask them to draw how the poem makes them feel, or illustrate the story of the poem

If your children are younger, it’s easier to have them draw what happens in the poem or something tangible and concrete. For older children, you can have them draw a more abstract representation of the poem. For example, instead of what is happening in the poem, they can draw how this poem makes them feel, or how the narrator is feeling, or the ideas/themes of the poem.

    

CLASSICAL CHINESE POETRY ACTIVITIES - WRITE YOUR OWN POEM

Although there are many in-depth rules and structures for classic Chinese poetry, that is outside the scope of this articles. For our purposes, we will stick with some simple definitions:

  • Couplets: 2 line verse that rhymes
  • 2 Couplets (4 lines): the minimum number of lines in a poem
  • Fixed Line Lengths: typically 4, 5, and 7 characters for each line

Depending on how much you want to explain or make your children do (or how hard they think it is), you can choose to have them create couplets, two couplets, of any fixed line length.

 WHAT YOU NEED 
  • Paper and pencil/pen

Write Your Own Poem (age 3+, single or multi person)

 HOW TO PLAY 

1. Explain the different types of poem structures (see above)
2. Choose which formula you want the kids to follow (or have them choose for themselves).
3. Choose a topic. (It is usually easier for children to have a topic.)
4. Write and then share/read aloud.

If your children are younger, you can write most of a poem and have them choose the rhyming words - even if it doesn’t make sense. This is to teach rhyme and rhythm and it can be very funny to the kids if it ends up being nonsense.

Or you can have the entire group of kids write a poem together about a given topic instead of making them write their own.


We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK

Keep the big picture in mind.

Because we have such limited time but so much desire for our kids, often, we obsess over tiny details out of the fear that we’re missing a learning window or some secret to teaching 5,000 characters in a year.

Don’t worry so much.

Yes, learning Chinese poetry is interesting and can be important to learning Chinese and Chinese culture. But stressing out on WHICH poem is likely not going to make a difference in the long run.

Yes, learning Chinese radicals is helpful for recognizing characters and can be a fun puzzle game. But don’t worry so much about it if your kid hasn’t memorized them all or doesn’t understand the finer nuances of Chinese characters. It’s OK. They will still learn to read.

Not everything is make it or break it. There is a lot of give and take on this bilingual journey.

Have these tips been helpful? We’d love to hear from you in our Facebook Group and we hope to see you there.

向奧巴馬學習語文

2004年,美國民主黨全國大會上奧巴馬首次向全國亮相。他憑那一席話建立了他的威信和形象,讓他最終成為美國史上第一位黑人總統。

政治評論分析家指出,除了他那富有說服力的個人風采、和他懂得運用細節和有血有肉的歷史事實緊扣人心之外,他漂亮的修辭技巧更是他整篇講話的靈魂,不但博得了全民的喝采,也成為不少學生的學習典範。他修辭技巧的其中一個特色是他能運用不同的對立手法,其中包括了對比、排比、和層層的遞進。

讓我們來看看其中一些例子:

奧巴馬運用的對比

If a child on the south side of Chicago who can’t read, that matters to me, even if it’s not my own child;
If there is a senior citizen somewhere who can’t pay for the prescription [...] that makes my life poor, even if it’s not my grandparent.

I say to them tonight there is not a liberal America, and a conservative America. There is the United States of America.

In the end [...] do we participate in a politics of cynicism, or do we participate in a politics of hope?

 

奧巴馬運用的排比

There is not a black America, and a white America, a Latino America, an Asian America [...]

Hope in the face of difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty.

 

奧巴馬運用的遞進

這裏他運用的是時間上的遞進 + 性質上的排比:

It’s the hope of slaves sitting around a fire singing freedom songs, the hope of immigrants setting out for distant shores, the hope of a young naval lieutenant bravely patrolling [...]

 

學習修辭的重要性

對比、排比、遞進...這些修辭手法,我們在中小學時就開始學習了。而這些修辭技巧並不是漢語專有。修辭的學習和操練其實是思維和認知的養成和培訓;掌握了這些技巧,其他語言都是舉一反三的道理。

要掌握修辭,其中的基本是學習同義和反義詞,同時也要明白各種詞性的分別。讓我們來看看以下的例子:

(a) 上學穿校服,赴宴着禮服。

(b) 吃飯用筷子,上課要專心。

很明顯,(a)是工整的排比,因為前半句是 [合成動詞 + 動詞 + 名詞],其中合成動詞是動詞+名詞;後半句的組成也一樣。而且每組動詞和名詞的類別也一致:合成動詞指前往某一個特別的場所、穿/着/戴...屬同類動作、最後的名詞都是服飾。

再看(b),雖然「吃飯」和「上課」都是合成動詞,但「筷子」是名詞,而「專心」則是副詞,因此前後讀起來就顯得散漫了,欠缺了有力的主旨。要是將前半句改成:吃飯須寬懷,感覺就不一樣了。

孩子輕鬆學習修辭

孩子從小學習修辭其實一點也不困難。孩子的天性喜愛將事物歸類,我們自然就順着他們的天性從這一點入手,只要孩子能將顏色、形狀等歸類,我們就可以讓他:

  • 將類同的字詞歸類:食物、動物、動作、形容顏色的詞、形容心情的詞、形容味道的詞...
  • 將意思相同的歸類:
    • 喜歡、開心、快樂、輕鬆、光明、開朗、
    • 奇怪、特別、神秘
    • 朋友、同學、伙伴、鄰居、親人
    • 肚痛、生病、受傷、流血

這類活動不必一定要認字、認讀,而是可以隨時隨地口頭上進行,也可以出一個主題讓孩子在日常生活中去搜集字詞,由你幫他整理組合,成為他的私人詞彙專庫。

生活中學習反義詞

隨着孩子的成長,你和他的對話也要變得豐富起來,盡量用日常生活的情節讓孩子明白字詞的含意和力量。例如:

  • 高聲說話會打擾別人,所以說話要輕聲一點。
  • 走太會摔跤,慢慢走就安全。
  • 繩子綁太就解不開,綁一點就容易解快。
  • 因為着了涼所以就生病了;吃了藥很快就會康復

當然,利用繪本和圖書集中學習可以更提高孩子的修辭能力,因為平常生活接觸的事物畢竟有限,但圖書可以表達的情境就豐富得多。

思展出版的反斗歌就是專門為幼童編撰的修辭學習繪本:全書以30年代的獨特風格繪製插圖,除了集中同義詞和反義詞的學習之外,更以顏色編碼識別各類詞性,為孩子製造出視覺效果,幫助他們以潛意識輕鬆學習。

反斗歌一&二冊限量版套裝,連同遊戲禮包

 

The Benefits of Learning Chinese Poetry

In this article, we will discuss the benefits of teaching our children Chinese poetry, both classical and modern.

After grammar, many children, and adults alike, find poetry to be the next horrible thing they are forced to learn. Why then, in the pursuit of Chinese literacy, should we consider introducing Chinese poetry to our children?

Before we continue, we recommend emphasizing the beauty, rhythm, and surprise of the language used in poetry instead of dissecting and examining the poems unto death. Nothing kills joy like being forced to find “deep meaning” in an art form that is meant to express feeling and ideas in a symbolic way.

Cultural literacy

As we have mentioned previously, there is more to fluency than knowledge of words and grammar. Cultural literacy is just as important for communication and finding common ground with others. Part of it is knowing the key cultural touchstones of a people. It becomes a sort of shorthand for conveying ideas and main points.

For example, in Western culture (at least, until recently), cursory knowledge of the Bible or Shakespeare was vital to understanding and interpreting much of English literature. Most educated people would be able to identify famous snippets of sonnets such as

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
      - William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18

In a similar vein, almost every single Chinese person can recite 靜夜思 by 李白.

床前明月光
疑是地上霜
舉頭望明月
低頭思故鄉

There is something beautiful and sustaining for our children to take part in memorizing - or at least, familiarizing themselves with a poem that dates back to the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE).

Furthermore, classical Chinese poetry is linked to Chinese calligraphy and Chinese calligraphy paintings. It is a way we can introduce these types of Chinese arts to our children - not to mention, dynasties, histories, and political systems.

Yes, that can seem rather intimidating. While these side subjects are not necessary to be incorporated along with teaching poems, if you wanted to, you can.

A means to become more aware of Chinese words

Poetry provides a means for our children to become more aware of Chinese words.

Through poetry, children will hear repetition, alliteration, rhythm, meter, and rhyme. This is another way for our children to be exposed to the musicality of the Chinese language. They will learn new Chinese words and phrases and unconsciously pick up the rise and falls of the language.

Similar to how songs and music help children memorize and remember lyrics, the rhyme and meter of poems help them memorize the words. Thus, it is another way to drum the cadence of Chinese into their muscle memory.

Develop creative language skills

Classical Chinese poetry were written to specific structures or forms. You could teach your child how to write and fit their ideas into literary strictures. This encourages children to consider why they would choose a particular word over another, taking into account rhyme, meaning, and expression.

Furthermore, having children write and compose their own poems will encourage creativity, expand their vocabulary, and teach them how to incorporate a non-literal understanding of language. They ideally can learn new ways to express themselves in Chinese as well as increase a specific writing skill, giving our children a more agile command over the Chinese language.

Appreciate the beauty of the Chinese language

All languages have their unique beauty. Poetry can show children the wit, melancholy, and range of both the Chinese language and its people.

When our children learn to appreciate Chinese through poetry, they can see the richness of our culture and history and thus be encouraged to pursue Chinese more so on their own.

一分鐘革命 The One Minute Revolution

你有留意到最近興起的一分鐘靜坐法嗎?只要短短60秒的正念 (Mindfulness) 練習,可以帶來很多即時的益處:

  • 清除情緒低落
  • 令你感到希望和平和,讓你微笑
  • 減低你的不安和外來壓力
  • 穩住你的心神,提高你的專注力
  • 增強你抵抗不良習慣的意志力

要是能持之以恆、養成習慣,即使只是每天一分鐘的靜坐,都能為你身心帶來莫大的好處。

當然,要真正得到打坐 (靜坐 / 冥想) 的深遠益處,每天一分鐘顯然是不足夠的。但是,「一分鐘」是一個可以讓我們見到顯著效果的開始。


Have you noticed the one minute meditation that has become popular recently? By practicing a mere 60-second of mindfulness, you can reap many instant benefits*:

  • It can relieve you from depression
  • Makes you smile - makes you happy and positive
  • Reduces your anxiety and alleviates your stress
  • Helps to focus, and stablises your mind
  • Helpful for body and mind

* source: www.giveme1minute.com

When you make it into a habit, a short 1-minute meditation each day can bring significant benefits to your body and mind in the long term.

Obviously, in order to truly benefit from meditation, one minute is far from being enough. However, One Minute is a starting point from which we can see results.

就像孩子學習一樣,當他正式上學了,越到高年級,他必須要專心學習的時間需求會越長。
要他將來能有足夠的專注力和定力,就必須從小開始養成專注的習慣。
意志力和專注力,就和肌肉一樣,是可以鍛鍊出來的。
就讓我們也從一分鐘開始吧。


This is quite similar to a child’s need to focus when he starts formal education. As he moves up the academic ladder, he will need longer attention span to focus on his studies.
To build such focus and attention span, we should think of starting from a young age. It takes time to instil a good habit.
Similar to our muscle strength, focus and attention can also be trained.
Let us beginning with one minute.

三歲孩子的一分鐘 One minute to a 3-year-old

三歲孩子要是能專注的話,加上正確的指導,一分鐘內可以完成甚麼?

  • 靜聽一首兒歌
  • 捲起一條小毛巾,並放到應屬的位置
  • 將10-20塊不同顏色的積木依顏色分類
  • 摺好自己的一雙襪子、或件件小內衣物
  • 將大杯中的水倒進2隻小杯
  • 朗讀最少兩課【基礎漢字500】(溫習己學過的)
  • 完成4道數學題:1+1=  / 2+1= / 3+1= / 4+1=

透過每天一分鐘的活動,加上他自然的心智成長發展,半年積下來的成果,不必細說你都可以預期得到吧。這就是每天一分鐘的威力。


What can a 3-year-old achieve in one minute with proper guidance and focus?

  • Listen attentively to a children’s song
  • Roll up a small towel and return it to its proper place
  • Group 10-20 coloured blocks into colours
  • Fold up a pair of his/her socks, or an item of his/her under garment
  • Pour water from a jug into 2 small glasses
  • Read (aloud) at least 2 lessons from Basic Chinese 500 (revision of previously learnt lesson)
  • Complete 4 maths questions: 1+1=  / 2+1= / 3+1= / 4+1=

With as little as one minute each day, coupled with his/her natural growth, a 3-year-old will no doubt achieve new height and accomplish great wonder. This is the power of a minute a day.

幾個小注意 徹底提升專注 Small points to reap big results

養成孩子一分鐘專注的習慣,深化這成效,必須注意幾點:

  • 學習的話 (認讀、數理),要每天定時
  • 日常生活的活動,可以隨時隨地
  • 在這一分鐘內保持環境安靜
  • 在這一分鐘內不要和孩子說話,以免打擾他的專注。將你的讚許也留到一分鐘之後吧。
  • (除非涉及安全) 不必給予任何協助。讓他以一分鐘的時間專心地去感受挫敗、去自己想辦法、自己解決

一分鐘的專注學習可以帶來很長遠的效果,孩子的得益還會遠超於單純的學識。


Here are a few points to take note in order to help your child to truly train his/her focus:

  • Subject related learnings (reading, maths) should have a fixed time each day
  • Training of everyday activities should happen any time as suitable
  • Maintain a quiet and calm atmosphere during this one minute
  • Avoid talking to your child during this one minute, in order not to disturb his/her focus. Save your praises until the one minute is up
  • (except for safety reasons) do not offer any assistance. Allow your child to spend one minute to focus on the problem, to try out various ways and maybe even get frustrated, and to eventually think of a solution.

One minute of highly focused learning can bring about many long term benefits. Your child will gain much more than the knowledge that s/he is learning.

科學性的設計 A scientific design

現實來說,孩子的專注持久力遠遠不止一分鐘。腦神經科對幼童專注持久力的研究結果是:

In reality, a child’s attention span is far more than 1 minute. Recent studies in neurosciences towards young children has revealed the following:

2歲孩子 2-year-old 7分鐘 minutes
3歲孩子 3-year-old 9分鐘 minutes
4歲孩子 4-year-old 12分鐘 minutes
5歲孩子 5-year-old 14分鐘 minutes

 思展方程式對專注持久力的培養 Sage Formula trains Focus and Attention 

思展方程式的宗旨是:

讓孩子在他能力所及的範圍內,不經意地透過每天的練習,輕鬆地、潛移默化地提升他的能力


The principle of Sage Formula is:
Through gentle and subtle everyday practice, set within a child’s range of capabilities, to boost the child’s learning and to yield incredible results.
基礎漢字500課程 Basic Chinese 500

若以伴讀錄音的mp3計算,即使是最高的實力級,最多15秒就能完成朗讀一整課。孩子的實際情況,若是重讀的話,平均以這個2倍時間計算,新學的一課約4倍時間。
即是說按課程設計每次朗讀5課的時間大約是3分鐘以下。早晚各3分鐘就能起到很大的效果。
當然,親子之間的交談、之前的情緒/氣氛準備、之後的延續閱讀會需要更長的時間。


In the read-along mp3 recording, each lesson takes maximum 15 seconds to complete. This is true even for the Fluent Reader (the highest level). When we consider in real practice, it takes a child twice the length of time when revising a lesson, and 4 times the length of time to read a new lesson.

In other words, if each study session is carried out according to the Sage Formula design (read 4 old lessons + 1 new lesson), it takes less than 3 minutes each time to finish 5 lessons. With merely 3 minutes, twice a day, your child can achieve great results.


寶貝盒 Treasure Box

請看以下的參考圖 (可點擊放大) Please refer to the following diagram (click to enlarge)

寶貝盒的每冊閱讀時間循級遞進,但都控制在孩子可以承受的範圍之內。配合趣味吸引的內容和情節,難怪深受孩子的喜愛呢。


The length of time to complete one story gradually elongates with each level. They are all within the average attention span of a child. Coupled with interesting stories and exciting plots, it has naturally been much enjoyed by children.

了解思展方程式

若要進一步了解思展方程式的內容,請點擊以下按鈕:

We invite you to discover more on Sage Formula by clicking the below buttons.

基礎漢字500 介紹 Basic Chinese 500
寶貝盒 介紹 Treasure Box

要是你的孩子已在學習思展方程式課程,歡迎參閱其他有關思展方程式的文章,並利用本部落格的免費下載資源 (請參考右邊或下方的 sidebar list),進一步提高學習成效。

If your child is already studying with Sage Formula, please read our other blog posts on Sage Formula. You may also be interested to make use of the free downloadable resources (please see sidebar on the right or at the bottom) to enhance your child’s study.

 

認識漢字部首

漢字的歸類,一向以兩大元素分類:

  • 一. 部首
  • 二. 部首以下,以筆劃數排列

雖然現代字典亦採用羅馬字注音作為檢索,但遇上不同方言、破音字、不懂讀音的情況,還是必須依靠部首和筆劃來檢索。因此,學習部首是學習漢字的重要基礎。

淺談漢字部首歷史

漢字的部首都是自古傳來,都和古人的生活和世界有密切的關係,反映出他們的習慣和重大活動。漢字部首可以大致分為七個類別:

  • 人體部位,包括人、頭(頁)、目、口、手、足
  • 器用,包括與祭祀 (示、凶、角、玉) 和打仗 (矛、弓、車) 相關的部首,還有衣、食、住、用的各類
  • 動物,包括飛禽、家畜、走獸、爬蟲、鱗甲類的動物
  • 植物,包括草木等
  • 自然界,包括了天象和地輿
  • 數字,包括了一到十
  • 天干、地支

以上各大類的部首,到了今時今日的現代生活,很多字早已不再為人們所應用,相對地那些部首也漸漸地不再在字典中出現了。漢字部首從「說文解字」開始時有540個,到了康熙字典就只納入214個。

現代漢語的漢字結構

在現代漢語中,大約80%的漢字是形聲字。簡體字的比例更多一些。

形聲字的形部是部首,在字義上比較具代表性。聲部是漢字讀音的標示,對字義並不產生太大的影響。例如:睛、晴、清、請... 都以「青」為聲部,但整個字的意思卻由形部的部首主宰。

部首大多數本身是一個字,而且是獨體字,即是不能上下左右分割的字。當部首是獨體字的時候,會保留原來的形體;當作為部首時,往往會簡化變形。

例如:「女」成為部首時,會寫得較窄、較側;「人」字成為部首時會變成「亻」;「火」字則有兩種形態:較窄的「火」和下方四點的「灬」。

 

基礎漢字500中的部首字

基礎漢字500課程從啟蒙級就開始有系統地引進獨體/部首字。其中

  • 啟蒙級有22個
  • 萌芽級有24個
  • 躍進級有14個
  • 信心級7個
  • 實力級3個

合共70個部首字。單是頭兩級就學了46個常用的部首字。有了這些基礎知識,日後就比較容易向孩子解釋漢字結構和字義了。

我們整理了基礎漢字500課程部首字的總匯資料,方便家長和教師作為參考,從而更有系統地協助孩子學習。歡迎下載。

   

下載部首參考 (PDF)

 

繁簡對照表(總覽)

知繁識簡,早已成了香港人熟練兩文三語的基本要求了。在基礎漢字500的課程中,其中有152個漢字有繁簡之別,平均每級都有30多個,即是全課程的三分之一。

我們將這些字都整理了一下,依級別及出現次序列了一份繁簡對照表,供大家參考。

現代漢語,是一種活生生、實用的語言。每天,分佈在世界各地每個角落的14億人們都在利用它作談天說地、談古說今、談空說有、談情說愛... 漢語和漢字也因應着各地、各人的習慣和需求在不斷演變。

也許你偏愛繁體字的雅典、傳情;也許你推崇簡體字的利落、便捷。

在教導和啟蒙孩子的時候,不妨從各種角度去認識這兩種寫法的長短處:

  • 「學識」、「学识」- 哪種寫法比較快捷實際?
  • 「旅遊」、「旅游」- 哪種寫法比較貼切會意的造字法?
  • 「聽」、「听」- 繁體是耳部,有道理;簡體變了口部,不合理,但是能寫得很快,原來還和原始的甲骨文有所相似...

《基礎漢字500》繁簡對照表

歡迎你下載基礎漢字500繁簡對照參考表 (PDF,共11頁),一起和孩子趣味學習,說不定你和孩子都很快就成為繁簡通喔。

下載 [基礎漢字500] 繁簡對照表(PDF)

 

模式、圖案和色彩在學習中起的作用

有一項實驗以91位來自不同國家的較年長成人為對象,將他們分成兩組,進行了為期10個星期的美術治療。美術治療主要以顏色刺激大腦的淋巴區域,而淋巴區域的其中一個主要功能是記憶。10星期後,實驗組成員的認知能力和技巧都超越了對照組。

色彩和圖案對學習和記憶能起很大的作用,這一點很多研究和實驗都已印證了。而基礎漢字500的設計,正融合了這兩方面的原理,幫助孩子從潛意識的層次加強學習能力和記憶力,使他們不但在認讀漢字有高成效,同時在將來其他方面的學習亦能建立良好的根基。因為真正的教育不能靠單一地將知識塞給孩子,而是應該要讓學生能做到舉一反三。

基礎漢字500模式的設計

 課文編排的模式 

雖然是整整500課的課程,但每一課的模式是固定的:從課數、課題、加大生字展示,到每課5句課文、每句的平均字數,再到每課最後一頁的「完」字,都依着同一個模式、千篇一律。這種固定的模式對孩子來說是減少了未知素、增加了穩定性,因此減少了不安、加強了信心。對大腦來說,當熟習了這種既定模式後,就會將注意力集中在唯一會改變的新焦點:每課出現的一個新生字。因此,孩子的學習成效自然就強了。

 級數和冊數的設計 

五級的課程,每級都有五冊。無論對哪個文化來說,五,是一個很特別的數字,都會帶來一種特別的安定性。其中一個原因是在原始時代開始需要數數時,由於未有文字記號,人們都以身體部位作為輔助。我們的手腳都各有五隻手指腳趾,最為便利。因此「五」帶來某一程度的完滿感覺。

每冊的冊數,我們採用了圓點圖案。以圖陣表示數量是很科學而且快捷的方法。當孩子認識了這種表達方式,日後再學習認讀數字後,對「數」自然會有另一種體會。

 書脊圖案的設計 

每級五冊的圖書,每冊書的書脊下方都有一個小圖案,排放正確的話就會形成一幅完整的圖畫。這個設計有兩個目的:

  • 其一,鼓勵孩子學習自理。有了書脊的圖案,孩子自然地會產生一種要將圖書排放正確的念頭,同時,他也不需要成人的指點,就可以知道自己是否做得正確。這種自理和自我評估的機會和能力給予孩子一種自主權,能提升他全面的自信心。
  • 其二,吸引孩子留意書脊也是圖書重要的一部份。因為封面和封底最能吸引注意力,而書脊這重要的圖書部位往往被忽視。其實書脊本身對圖書起了很大的作用:歸類、整理、搜索圖書往往都靠書脊。

 

基礎漢字500顏色的設計

孩子喜愛基礎漢字500,其中一個原因是插圖設計的討好。簡單的線條、對比鮮明的顏色,對他們幼嫩的視覺和神經觸覺都恰到好處。

五級的課程,各自有自己的特定顏色。這五種顏色從基本心理角度來說會產生不同的影響力:

 藍色 ,代表可靠、信任。一片深淺不一的汪洋大海給人的感覺就是這樣。以藍色作為課程的啟蒙,給孩子一種安穩的信心。

 綠色 ,代表健康、成長。萬物初生的翠綠,蘊釀著無窮的生命力。萌芽級正要鼓勵孩子乘着認讀啟蒙的風,劃破文字隔膜之浪。

 橙色 ,帶來鼓舞和促動,也會令人胃口大開。難怪小朋友會偏愛橙色、黃色系的食物。躍進級讓孩子接觸很多一字多義的字詞,更能打開他對閱讀理解的胃口。

 桃紅 ,是平和及細膩的感覺,也讓人感到溫馨的愛。信心級的孩子開始學習假設、聯想、抽象等想象力,需要以細膩的觸覺和廣闊的空間去體會和發揮。

 紅色 ,是力量、勇氣和熱情。對我們中國人來說,更喻意吉祥。實力級的孩子有了500個漢字的基礎,經過一年半的規律性學習,再看到自己循步漸進的能力後,就有了動力和勇氣。我們更希望他藉着已蘊釀了的對閱讀的熱情,繼續向文字與知識的世界開闖。

人生最重要的第一套書
我們深信,基礎漢字500會是孩子 人生最重要的第一套書 

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