詞彙學習 The etymology and usage of [打]

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。


「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

其他組詞 Vocabulary study


躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:


打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

 啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER 

打人 to hit someone
打下 to shoot down
打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
打鳥 to shoot a bird
打手 a hired thug
打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
打開 to open
打天下 to seize power
打草 to make a draft
打家 (劫舍) to rob

 萌芽級 BUDDING READER 

打中 to hit a target
打風 To experience a typhoon
打氣 to cheer
打魚 to fish
打比方 to give an analogy
打火 to light a fire
(打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
打住 to stop, to halt
打點 to get ready, to put things in order
打坐 to meditate
打聽 to ask around, to enquire
打耳光 to slap
打不過 To be unable to beat
打從 ever since

 躍進級 BEGINNING READER 

打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
打更 to sound the night watch
打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
打洞 to punch a hole
打動 to move emotionally
打嘴巴 to slap

 信心級 BEGINNING READER 

打電話 to make a phone call
打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
打傘 to hold up an umbrella
打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
打字 to type
打字機 a typewriter
打分 to grade or mark
打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
打傷 to injure

 實力級 BEGINNING READER 

打球 to play ball
打遊戲機 to play video game
打掃 to clean up
打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
打滾 to roll about
打結 to tie a knot
打破 to break, to smash
打圓場 to smooth things over

 成語 idioms 

打成一片 to integrate
打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
打發時間 to kill time
打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.


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要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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「春風」自家教課程 Spring Homeschooling

一年之計在於春;一生之計在於勤。

剛開了年,小朋友口袋裏裝滿了紅包,肚子裏吃飽了各式各樣的賀歲美食,正是養精蓄銳,為這一年訂下學習目標和計劃的好時機。然後按步就班,讓今年來個大豐收。

最近,我們都經歷着社會的動盪、自然的災害、疫症的威脅、國際關係的變化… 然而,地球始終如一地在轉動運行,時間不會停下來,孩子仍然每分每秒地成長,父母依然要好好把握住他們每個發展的高敏期,給孩子最好的基礎教育。

孩子的啟蒙教育少不了一位好老師,而孩子最好的老師,就是自己的父母。在爸爸媽媽為他安排的舒適、安穩的家庭環境中,有父母親切、溫馨的陪伴和啟導,春風化雨,孩子自然能輕鬆無壓力、健康快樂地學習和成長。

問題來了…

「但是,要教些甚麼?怎樣教呀?」– –很多家長會這樣問。

有方案喔!

思展特別 免費 推出:
「春風」自家教  課程
「春風」自家教課程 特色

  • 十二個活動,讓小朋友「手到、眼到、心到、耳到、口到」地學習
  • 訓練孩子的語文和數理思維能力,加強孩子的認知發展
  • 從基礎開始為孩子塑造學習型大腦,鍛練孩子的:
    • 專注力
    • 邏輯思維
    • 記憶力
    • 視覺辨認
    • 觀察力
  • 編碼基礎練習,助孩子迎接AI世代
  • 為父母提供神經學習科學小提示,教你利用腦神經學最新發現,理解孩子的大腦機能,從而全面提升孩子的終身學習能力
  • 思展方程式的埸景和人物登場,一起陪伴孩子快樂練習
  • 全課程備有繁體版及簡體版
  • 結合遊戲卡,多元化活動延伸學習
  • 完全免費

一個月的課程,隔天發表新內容。

全程12課的「春風」自家教課程內容包括:

課數 學習內容
第一課 [看一看]判別類同字、分類統計、認讀、漢字部件
第二課 [剪一剪] 對稱、認讀、成語、圖形組合、運筆、書寫
第三課 [聽一聽] 聆聽、分類、編碼、統計、認讀
第四課 [比一比] 筆畫、筆順、長短、記憶
第五課 [寫一寫] 書寫、觀察、造句、運筆、邏輯
第六課 [貼一貼] 砌圖、順序、觀察、圖形組合
第七課 [塗一塗] 手眼協調、觀察、造字常識、圖形、成語、記憶
第八課 [拼一拼] 圖形、認讀、觀察、記憶、三維概念
第九課 [連一連] 圖形、漢字部件、認讀、詞彙、手眼
第十課 [說一說] 表達、記憶、左右方位、手眼、重疊概念
第十一課 [想一想] 編碼、觀察、空間轉換、認讀、思維訓練
第十二課 [讀一讀] 朗讀、手眼、字體辨別、破音字

每課除了以上的遊戲紙學習之外,還會有活動的卡牌遊戲活動。

春風得意馬蹄疾... 小朋友也快馬加鞭,精神奕奕地一起來遊戲中學習吧。

「春風」自家教 Spring Homeschooling
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歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

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何以見得⋯?

當我們說起一些很常用但本身又不帶甚麼意思的字,大家都會舉例:
「的的、了了,之乎者也囉。」

其實,這裏還有一個毫不起眼卻又很常用的字:

原來,「以」是一個象形字,意思是「用來做⋯、當作⋯、認為⋯」。例如:以牙還牙、以一擋十。

「以」也可以是一個連接詞,例如:以前、以來、以內⋯

「以」字有點抽象,不能單獨一個字讓孩子理解,更沒辦法用一張認圖看字卡去學習。以句子的形式和應用實例就比較容易理解。

「以」字在萌芽級第五冊教授,在整個思展方程式課程中出現過的形式有:以前,以後,可以,以為,所以,以外。

吃東西以前要洗手。 萌芽級
洗手以後就吃點心。 萌芽級
小蟲長大以後是美麗的蝴蝶。 躍進級
可以做成很多東西。 躍進級
石橋上面可以走車子。 躍進級
蝴蝶以為這朵花是真的。 躍進級
因為到晚上了,
所以大家要睡覺了。
信心級
除了桌子以外
我們還要搬什麼?
實力級

「以」還是一個部件,可以配上其他部首:

  • 似 - 相似
  • 姒 - (古代美人周幽王王后)褒姒 / 古代稱姐姐

簡體中文會利用「以」字作為形聲字:

  • 拟 =擬
  • 苡 =薏 (米)
  • 笖 =笋

「以」+方向

以+東 / 南 / 西 / 北 / 左 /右:從所說點算起的那個方向的範圍

/以:一張清單或數量的範圍

/以:時間的先或後

:從所說的時間或事件起計的期間

:過去

其他詞例及英文翻譯參考

由「以」字組成的詞很多,以下所列的是包含在思展方程式課程範圍之內、或較容易讓小朋友理解的詞彙:

不以為然not to accept as correct
不以為意not to mind, unconcerned
何以見得how can you be sure?
難以相信hard to believe, incredible
信以為真to take something to be true
難以自已cannot control oneself, to be beside oneself
有生以來since birth
不知所以to not know the reason
習以為常accustomed to
數以百計hundreds of
學以致用to study something to put it to use
以牙還牙,以眼還眼a tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye
我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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Reading out loud

Reading out loud has long been touted as a staple in child education, whether it’s reading passages of a book out loud in the classroom, or reading a bedtime story at home.

Benefits for child development include improved memory, stronger focus, increased confidence, and more fluent speech – also making it a particularly effective activity for effective language study.

THE BENEFITS OF READING OUT LOUD

 Digest and retain information 

In 2015, the University of Montreal (Canada) conducted a study that showed that people were able to digest and retain information more easily when it was read out loud to them, compared to if they simply read the information in their heads. To add to this, another study in 2017 by the University of Waterloo  (Canada) concluded that information recall was even greater when subjects read out loud themselves, as opposed to having someone else read to them. This is greatly thanks to the additional motor act (from speaking), on top of the auditory input.

These findings point to a major benefit of reading aloud with children: increased retention of information. In other words, reading to your children, or even better still, encouraging them to read to you, boosts their memory and helps them remember content faster, and for a longer time.

 Build confidence and fluency 

This is especially useful when trying to teach your child a new language, or raising a bilingual child. Reading out loud not only allows your child to get a better ‘feel’ of the language on their tongue, but also helps them to retain new vocabulary, expressions and stories longer. Furthermore, the increased practice of speaking out loud and hearing themselves speak will build their confidence in expressing themselves, and help make their speech become more fluent and eloquent in the long run.

 Better communication skills 

In fact, in Minnesota, USA, the association ‘Reading Education Assistance Dogs’ (R.E.A.D.) connects children with volunteer therapy dogs, who act as reading companions! Children are able to read to the specially trained dogs, helping them improve their reading and communication skills with a judgement-free, attentive and patient listener. This scheme has proven to be a great success: aside from strengthening their reading skills, participating children have been said to have made huge progress in confidence, self-esteem and social skills.

A similar program has also been introduced to Finland since 2011.

READING OUT LOUD with the SAGE FORMULA

You can easily start reading out loud with your child using your Sage Formula sets.

  1. If they cannot read yet, your child can start by listening to the recordings (available as CDs/MP3/Read-Along App) while following along with the books.
  2. Once they are able to memorise and read the characters, encourage your child to start reading a couple chapters of the books out loud to you. Start with maybe one or two chapters, and move upwards from there to strengthen your child’s reading endurance.
    The very gradual increase in complexity of the characters and sentences ensures that your child will never feel too out of their depths, which is paramount in building their confidence.
  3. Once your child is comfortable with reading a level of Basic Chinese 500 books, consider first practicing reading the associated Treasure Box books out loud, before moving on to the next level.
    This way, your child will work up from reading more basic sentences to more complex one with a structured narrative, all without being overwhelmed by too many new characters.
  4. A fun activity you could do with your child is to let them write and illustrate their own stories, then have them read them to you out loud. They’ll not only have a lot of fun imagining and creating their own worlds, but will also develop reading, creative and artistic skills in the process. For more ideas and suggestions on these reading activities, please refer to our library of Learning Journal. To get you started on helping your child to craft their own story and read it back to you, please refer to this activity post.

References

Alexis Lafleur, Victor J. Boucher, The ecology of self-monitoring effects on memory of verbal productions: Does speaking to someone make a difference?, Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 36, November 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.06.015.

Eirini Zormpa, Laurel E. Brehm, Renske S. Hoedemaker, Antje S. Meyer. (2019) The production effect and the generation effect improve memory in picture naming. Memory 27:3, pages 340-352.

R.E.A.D.: http://www.readdogsmn.org/#


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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幼兒識部首 Focus on Bushou – 水部

水,是孩子每天會接觸到的東西:飲用、清潔、玩耍⋯ 孩子和水有着緊密的關係。水是那樣的難以捉摸、變幻多端,難怪總會讓孩子樂而忘返。
水,也是最常用的漢字部首之一。

這裏的幾個活動目的是讓孩子集中學習水部首。

學習目標

  • 能認識水字和水部的字形演變 (象形字)
  • 能說出水部代表的意義
  • 能正確掌握水部的筆畫名稱、筆形和筆順
  • 能辨認出水部的字
  • 能利用水部認識其他同部首的字


Water, 水, is always children's favourite. It is of ultimate importance to all lives.
Unsurprisingly, 水 (氵) is one of the most commonly used Bushous (部首, radicals) of Chinese characters.

The activities outlined here focus on the study of this bushou.

What I will learn

  • To recognise the character 水 and understand its formation and evolution.
  • To tell the meaning of 水.
  • To say the names of the strokes of 氵, to know how each stroke is written and the correct order of writing them.
  • To identify characters that have the same氵bushou.
  • To learn other characters through the氵bushou.

ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK 本週活動

在做以下活動之前,最好能先讓孩子玩玩水,作為他身心的準備,能加強學習成效。
以下的活動,每次選一樣來做就好,不要讓孩子感到疲勞有壓力。


活動一 認識部首演變&意義

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 

   

 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • 將PDF列印出來
  • 將第2頁的四幅圖片逐一剪下來
  • Print out the worksheets. Cut out the 4 diagrams of p2.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. 利用第1頁的內容,向孩子講述水字的起源、水字的演變和水部的變形
  2. 向孩子解說水部的兩個主要意義:
    (a) 含有水的名詞,例如:海、河、(果)汁、汗水
    (b) 和水有關的活動或動作,例如:洗澡、游泳、流
  3. 讓孩子將4張水字演變圖片按演變發展順序排列出來

只要孩子願意,鼓勵他重複玩。

  1. Show P1 of the worksheet to your child. Explain to them how the character 水 was first "drawn", resembling flowing water. Show them how it gradually evolved to its present day form. Also show its form when it is written as a bushou.
  2. Explain to your child the 2 major meanings of  the characters with 氵bushou:
    (a) nouns that contain water, such as: 海 (the sea)、河 (the river)、(果)汁 (juice)、汗水 (sweat)
    (b) actions related to water, such as: 洗澡 (to bathe)、游泳 (to swim)、流 (to flow)
  3. Ask your child to arrange the 4 diagrams of the evolution of 水 in their correct order.

活動二  認識水部字形

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具   HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • 將PDF的 p3 列印出來
  • print out p3

 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. 讓孩子看水部字形,認識水部。水部亦稱為「三點水」
  2. 利用第一幅藍色水部圖片,逐筆告訴孩子水部的筆順和名稱:點、點、剔(提)。
  3. 讓孩子用手指在水部字形上描繪,一面描,一面說出筆畫名稱
  4. 孩子在5個空心字形上分別填上他喜愛的顏色,用蠟筆、水彩、七彩閃粉膠水⋯ 都可以
  1. Show your child how氵is written. Tell them this is 水部。It is also known as 三點水.
  2. Using the first diagram (solid colour), tell your child the name of each stroke, in correct order: 點 /dian/、點 /dian/、剔(提) /ti/.
  3. Ask your child to use their finger to trace the氵bushou while saying each stroke name.
  4. Invite your child to colour in the 5 氵bushou in their favourite colours

活動三  認識水部的字 & 詞彙

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 

   

 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 

  • 將PDF的 p4列印出來 print out p4 of the worksheet
  • 按孩子的進度,將他已學過的水部字的課文和字卡都準備好 Get the lessons and cards of the characters ready
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. 練習紙上的字依基礎漢字500課程教授的次序排列
  2. 每個字的九宮格的顏色與基礎漢字500級別的顏色一致,方便家長識別孩子是否已學會個別漢字
  3. 每個漢字旁邊有一個相關的詞彙,用字都在課程之內,配合孩子的進度。鼓勵教導孩子一起學習
  1. The 10 characters on the worksheet are arranged in the same order as how they are taught in the Basic Chinese 500 course.
  2. The writing grid of the characters follow the same colour scheme of each level of the course. They help you to verify if your child has already learnt the characters.
  3. There is a word next to each character. All the characters are taught in the course. Please encourage your child to learn them together.

更多常識 Additional information

要是孩子有一定的理解力,你可以進一步向孩子解說水字相關的知識,加強他對水的印象,豐富他的常識認知。

根據《說文解字》, 水字可以解釋為「評度的標准」,例如:水平。在五行中,水代表北方的屬性。

中國的地理環境變化多端,水的形態也各有不同。自古以來,我們的先人對水就有很仔細的分類和描述。在甲骨文中,動態的流水一般寫作縱向    或 

而靜止或漫流的水通常寫作橫向 

以下是由山上的源頭開始的各種「水」的名稱:


Depending on your child’s age and understanding, you can also tell them more stories about water to help them relate to the words and enrich their knowledge.

According to《說文解字》 which is the classic Chinese dictionary, one of the meanings of水 is “the standard of evaluation”, such as 水平. In the 5 basic elements (五行), water represents the north.

The vast land of China encompasses a rich array of variations of geographic features, which results in different types of bodies of water. Our ancestors studied these bodies of water and came up with different words to describe them. In ancient writing, actively flowing waters are written vertically ( ) whereas quieter or still waters are written horizontally ( ).

The table below shows how different bodies of water are called, starting from the source of water in the mountains.

各種水的名稱 How different bodies of water are called in Chinese

水流的源頭
The source of water
quán
石壁上飛濺的山泉
The mountain water splashing from the cliffs
shuǐ
由山泉匯成的水
When various 泉 gather together
jiàn
山澗在地面匯成的清流
The clear water formed when several brooks in the mountains gather together
眾多小溪匯成的水流
The small river formed when several streams merge
chuān
眾多川流匯成的大川
The larger river formed when several smaller rivers merge
最大的河
The largest river
jiāng

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

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We’d love to hear from you.

 

Creating a bilingual environment

From greater cultural diversity, to improved attention span, and even to greater job prospects many years down the line, there really is no shortage of benefits to raising a bi- or multilingual child. However, embarking on the mission to do so may seem daunting to many – how does one even start to build a nurturing and encouraging bilingual environment?

While it will require dedication, effort, and consistency, raising bilingual children does not have to demand a herculean effort from parents.

This post outlines multiple ways you can create a multilingual environment for your children. You will discover how the whole process can be made more fun and engaging for children.

Choosing your household language

The most essential step to raising bilingual children is to first determine how you intend to teach them the languages.

A popular choice among bilingual parents is the One Person One Language (OPOL) method, in which each parent speaks to the child in a different language. For instance, if your household languages are English and Chinese, one parent can speak to the children exclusively in English and the other in Chinese. This distribution helps ensure an equal exposure to both languages, and will also prevent your child from being confused when the same parent speaks 2 languages.

Alternatively, you may also elect to speak only the ‘minority language’ at home. Indeed, the ‘majority language’ – generally the one most spoken in the community – will be picked up with the least amount of resistance from children, due to their continuous exposure to it at school, with friends, from books, music, and so on. Therefore, you may want to develop the habit of speaking the minority language at home early on, to try to balance out your children’s exposure to different languages.

These are but a few strategies you can use to teach children multiple languages. At the end of the day, there is no superior method – it simply comes down to assessing your situation and picking the one that will work best for your. And as with all things child-related: don’t be afraid to adapt.

Exposing your child to a second language

Having your children engage with the culture – books, music, food, and so on – is not only a great way to spark their interest in the languages you are teaching them, but also helps diversify their education.

Buying books in different languages and teaching children to read independently allows them to pick up new vocabulary or expressions that they might not learn from day-to-day conversations. As they become more and more immersed in the story-telling and develop a love for reading, you may find that your children reach out for new books of their own volition, making their education ever more independent. Beyond learning or improving their ability in the language, they may also become more sensitive to particular philosophies or mindsets of the culture, and develop a finer, important understanding about differences between societies.

Listening to and singing songs with your children could also help them improve their fluency in a similar way, with the added benefit of them practicing the language as they sing. You may also let your children watch shows or movies in different languages, so that they can be exposed to the different ways a language can be spoken – maybe using different idioms, expressions, or accents.

Food also plays an important role in every culture, from the preparation of various ingredients, to the different cooking techniques, to the specific meal etiquette. By giving your children the opportunity to regularly eat food from your target cultures, you will be helping them develop a closer relationship with said cultures. Teach them the names of different ingredients and dishes, involve them in the preparation of food, and talk to them about the traditions that may surround certain foods!

Expand from learning to applications

Wherever possible, try to show your children how the languages they are learning are important and useful beyond the household. This is particularly relevant in the case of minority languages, as children may resist learning a language they do not deem useful in the country they live in. Maybe try spending quality time with friends and family who only speak the minority language. This will also help children learn to express themselves more fluently using only one language, which can sometimes be challenging to bilingual children, who often develop the habit of casually switching between languages in conversation. While this is not necessarily a bad habit, it is also good for them to practice sticking to a single language.

Direct contact

Finally, cultural immersion through travelling is a fantastic method for creating a bilingual environment for your children. Of course, it is not always feasible, but allowing children to be in direct contact with the culture – to see the art, the architecture, taste the food, hear the language spoken on the streets – is a priceless experience for them and will truly be the cherry on the cake of their multicultural education.

 

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)

很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

 

看圖造句 From image to sentence

最初,寶寶只會說單字。慢慢地,他很自然地會將它們串起來組成詞,然後會說短句。再過一段時間,他的句子慢慢變長。最終,他還能發表一番動人心絃的講話。這是孩子語言的自然發展途徑。

孩子學習寫作的過程也一樣:當他學會了一定數量的單字,就會學習組成詞語,再而造句。要是寫作不是你家孩子的強項,怎麼辦?不要緊,我們可以利用字卡。只要一套閱讀練習卡,保管你的孩子也能輕鬆寫出美麗的句子,譜出動人的文章。

我們為孩子設計了兩個短短的小故事,每個故事分四部分,讓孩子輕鬆起步。參考答案也附在一起了。當然,你應該盡量鼓勵孩子去創造自己的句子和故事。來,我們一起看看活動的方法。

When children have learnt enough words, they naturally string them together and form sentences. Eventually, they will put all the sentences together to form speech. This is the natural development of a child’s language and thoughts.

Writing in Chinese is the same. Once your child has learnt enough characters, they can start to form words and sentences. Is writing not one of your child’s strengths? No worries. We can make use of the Study Cards. With the set of Study Cards, you child will be able to write beautiful sentences and craft stories. 

To help them get started, we have designed two short stories, each containing 4 parts. We have even provided reference answers! But of course, you should always encourage your child to create their own stories. Let’s have a look below.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

這個活動很適合你和孩子交流探討一些和寫作相關的思維:

  • 每個故事的四幅圖畫應該是甚麼順序
  • 孩子對故事有甚麼想法?
  • 教孩子從「何時?何處?何人?甚麼?為甚麼?」(5W) 去理解故事

即使是年幼的孩子,也應該盡量鼓勵他和你談談他的想法。請記得:我們提供的句子只是參考,而不是「答案」。說故事是沒有正確答案的。

由於「一」字並沒有在基礎漢字500課程中獨立教授,所以沒有印製的字卡,我們特別在下載文件中加制了,方便你剪下應用。(下載連結在下面)

這個活動適合已學到躍進級一半的小朋友。參考下載圖中的字卡顏色,就可以簡明地知道每個字出自哪一級,你的孩子是否已學過了。要是碰上有些字孩子還沒學,你可以修改一下用詞,例如:許多>很多 / 送給 > 給/ 半路上 > 路上…,也可以幫他把字挑出來或讀給他聽。

This is a great activity to engage your child in discussions about:

  • The correct order of the 4 images in each story
  • Your child’s thought about the stories
  • “When, where, what, who, why?”

Even very young children should be encouraged to discuss their ideas and thoughts. The sentences provided here only serve as examples and not “answers”.

As “一” was not taught as one of the 500 characters, we have created an additional sheet in the PDF file for you to cut out and use (see below download link).

This game is geared towards children who are about half way through Building Reader and up. Refer to the colour of the Study Cards on the reference sheet to decide whether or not your child is at the right level to play this game. For children who have not yet learnt certain characters, please provide necessary assistance by swapping them (e.g. 很多 instead of 許多), omitting them (e.g. 給 instead of 送給, 路上 instead of 半路上) or simply picking / reading the card for them.

看圖造句 Image to sentence (age 3+歲以上)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具  
  • 一張圖片,或幾將有關連的圖片 (歡迎下載參考圖)
  • 閱讀練習卡一套,你亦可自製字卡
  • 紙、筆 (視乎需要)
  • An image or a series of images (feel free to download our examples)
  • Study Cards, or you can make your own word cards
  • Pen / Pencil / Paper (optional)
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備  

 

  • 下載PDF (文件包含了繁體及簡體版、圖片及額外的「一」字字卡)
  • 要是你想依照我們提供的參考句子玩遊戲,先從各級挑出所需的字卡準備好
  • Download the PDF (contains both traditional and simplified Chinese versions, larger version of the pictures, and the additional character 「一」)
  • If you prefer to follow the sample sentences, pick out the cards from various levels
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法  
  1. 將圖片給孩子看。和孩子一起談談他看了圖以後的各種想法。要是你要用問題去引導他,盡量用開放式的問題。例如:你認為他為甚麼要…? (而不要問:他是不是要做…?)
  2. 請孩子根據他對圖的想法說一句 (或兩三句)話。
  3. 幫孩子一起從字卡中找出他那句話用過的字。
  4. 讓孩子用字卡組成他的句子。
  1. Show your child the image(s). Discuss the image(s) with your child.
  2. Ask your child to say one or more sentences about the image.
  3. Help your child to pick out the cards of the characters used in their sentence(s).
  4. Ask your child to arrange the cards to form their sentence(s).
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化  

視乎孩子的年齡和認讀水平,你可以按以下建議調節遊戲:

  1. 年幼的孩子開始時每次只用一張圖片。
  2. 年長的孩子可以一次用全部四張圖。
  3. 年幼的孩子剛開始時,你可以將PDF圖中的參考句讀給他聽,然後幫他將字卡準備好,由孩子將字卡排成正確的句子。
  4. 孩子稍為可以時,將參考句子(或你自己作的故事句子) 給他看,由孩子用字卡將句子「抄」出來。
  5. 年長的孩子,要是已開始書寫,可以直接將自己的句子寫下來。也可以用寫的和字卡結合。例如:要是不會寫某個字就可以用字卡。
  6. 這個活動可以單一個孩子玩,也可以集體創作。

Depending on your child’s age and progress, you may want to make the following adjustments:

  1. For very young children, start with only one image card.
  2. For older children, use all four cards to tell a story.
  3. For very young children just starting out, you could read them the sentence and pick out the cards. They will then arrange the cards to form the correct sentence.
  4. For younger children, you could show them the reference sentences, and ask them to use the cards to “copy” the sentences.
  5. For older children who can already write, they can also write out the sentences they created. They can also have the choice of combining writing and using the cards (for example, using the cards to help with characters they don’t know how to write).
  6. This activity can be played with one child, or with multiple children as teamwork.

溫提 Additional tips:

可以幫孩子將他造的句抄下來,或是將他排出來的字卡句子用手機拍下來。
You could copy down the sentences that your child has created, or take a photo of each of the sentences that your child made with the cards.

** 我們日後會繼續發表這類造句用的故事圖片。請不時留意BLOG的消息。We will continue to create more images for such sentence forming activity. Please check back regularly.


你和孩子玩過這遊戲後有甚麼反映嗎?我們很期待欣賞孩子玩這遊戲的照片喔。
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員,歡迎你也加入我們。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

老編心得 TIP OF THE WEEK

正如要有健康的體魄就要吃健康的食品,避免junk food;孩子的語文發展也需要多看、多讀、多聽高質素的內容。當你為孩子選圖書時固然會仔細挑選,與此同時在這個階段也應該避免讓他們接觸太口語化或不正規的書寫方式,以免他們產生混淆。

Form a habit of playing some kind of Chinese language games each week.
Playing these games is a way of making the language practical and part of their lives. Children learn to manipulate the characters and words, and thus become actively engaged in the language. This provides additional stimulation compared to passively reading from books.

 

同聲同氣同音字 Homophone card games

漢語的同音字很多,而韻字就更多。要是我們將這兩種特色以遊戲的形式融入孩子的語文學習,那就一方面能為他們導入這種語文現象的概念,另一方面能有系統地擴充他們的識字量,也鞏固了他們對生字的記憶。況且用這種遊戲中學習的方法,在輕鬆愉快的環境下更有利於記憶。當孩子熟習了同音/同韻字,有助他們日後書寫能力的發展。

以下的遊戲特別為基礎漢字500的小朋友而設計。利用閱讀練習卡,可以根據孩子的學習進度調整遊戲的難度。

[註:遊戲按普通話讀音]

Homophones are one of the major features of Chinese. One effective way to introduce this important feature to children is through games. Such games help increase children's awareness to homophones. They are also effective ways to systematically expand their vocabulary, and to help them remember those words. A solid understanding of homophones and rhyming characters will help children develop writing ability in future.

The game described here is adapted to the Basic Chinese 500 courseWith the help of these Study Cards, you can adjust the game to suit your child's progress.

*Note: the game is based on Putonghua pronunciation.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

同聲同氣 (age 3+歲以上)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具   HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 

初級 (啟蒙級 - 躍進級)

進階 (信心級 & 實力級)

 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. 將孩子已學過的漢字字卡洗亂,陣列在孩子面前,字面向上
  2. 讓孩子選一張字卡,請他讀出來 (讀出後,可以用卡背的拼音檢查是否正確)
  3. 請孩子將另一張同音字指出來
  1. Choose the homophone characters that your child has already learnt. Mix up the cards and lay them out in front of your child, with the characters facing upwards.
  2. Ask the child to choose one card, and read it out loud. (You could check the pronunciation with help of the pinyin at the back of the card)
  3. Ask the child to point out the other character which is pronounced the same as the one they just picked up.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

視乎孩子的情況,你可以增加以下的活動:

  1. 每當孩子拿起一個字,問問孩子:記得這個字在書中哪裏出現過嗎?記得那句句子嗎?
  2. 每個字請孩子 說一句含有這個字的話。這樣不但可以學習運用和造句,還可以幫助孩子清楚識別兩個同音字的不同意義和用法。

Depending on your child’s age and progress, you can incorporate the following activities:

  1. For each card your child picked up, ask if they can remember where in the books they have seen this character, and if they can remember the sentence(s).
  2. Ask your child to make up and say one more sentence, using this character. This will ensure your child understands the differences between the two homophones.


你和孩子玩過這遊戲後有甚麼反映嗎?我們很期待欣賞孩子玩這遊戲的照片喔。很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員,歡迎你也加入我們。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

老編心得 TIP OF THE WEEK

將語文遊戲帶到生活中。
例如要學韻字,可以選定一個字(例如「爸」),當天之內遇到或用到與這個字押韻的就指出來:小巴、菊花、蝦… 從這些不必認讀的語文遊戲開始,讓孩子漸漸感到語文的各種趣味性,日後再搬到紙上就容易多了。

Make learning FUN.
Encourage your child to invent their own words, no matter how silly or “wrong” they might sound. Soon you’ll realise even with made up words, they sound Chinese and they follow some Chinese linguistic patterns. Congratulations! It’s a sign that they are feeling the language. And when their made-up words do sound like some existing ones, write down the existing words for your child.

 

Sense of order – when East meets West

Have you ever heard people say that Chinese and English do things the other way round? 

  • If you were asked for today’s date, in most parts of Europeyou go by date, month then year 
  • Let’s say you address an envelope: in English, you start by declaring receiver, followed by the flat, the number, the street… and end with the country of destination

Each culture has its own way of organising data and informationInterestingly enough, the way Chinese approach logic and informational hierarchies is indeed quite often complete opposite to Anglo-Saxons. 

Let’s take a look at various ways in which data is organised in China, and at how it may be different than what you are accustomed to. 

Dates

The date format in China, as well as in other East Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, follows the YMD format: year/month/day. The pre-printed format is ______. 

This differs from in the US, where the MDY (month/day/year) format is used, or even in Europe, where the DMY (day/month/year) is the custom. 

Understanding this difference in notation is particularly important to avoid confusion when making plans! 

Discounts

Everyone loves a good discount, and being able to calculate them quickly in stores or on the spot is an important skill. The Chinese seem to be especially quick in calculating discounts. Why? Because in Chineseinstead of telling you the magnitude of the discount, we use the exact percentage of the original price you will pay. Stores will write “XX折 – this means that you pay XX percent of the original price. 

For instance, if a $100 product was 6”, you would pay $60 (60 per cent of $100)For the same deal in the US or Europe, stores would tell you that there was a “40% discount. In order to figure out how much you need to pay, you need to do an extra subtraction.  

Addresses

When writing addresses, Chinese will organize the information from the largest to the smallest unit

country > city > street > building > floor > unit > receiver

This is especially practical when managing post because logically, the letter or parcel should first arrive at the correct country, followed by the province/state, city, street, etc. and finally the individual receiver. 

See below examples of how to address an envelop in China and in Hong Kong. Click on the image to enlarge.

For China:

For Hong Kong (there is no postal code in Hong Kong):

Social vs Personal Hierarchy

There exists two “contradictory” hierarchies when it comes to the importance of people and nature. 

There is a hierarchy for the notable positions of authority in the world

天、地、君、親、師 – the most important entity in the world is Heaven, then Earth, followed by the Emperor (country), our parents, and our teachers.

This is an example of how hierarchies and organisation of information also makes its way into personal philosophy and impacts the way people live their lives. From a young age, people understand that these are the entities /individuals who must be shown utmost respect, and in this order. 

However, when it comes to personal development, this hierarchy is turned the other way round. We were told

修身、齊家、治國、平天下. We must first focus on improving and cultivating ourselves, before we can manage our family, then govern our country, and finally bring harmony to the world.
我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
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齊來學「生」字組詞

生,是一個很有力的字。

作為動詞 (生長、生活),它帶有動感和能量;
作為形容詞 (生動、活生生),它帶來希望和活力;
作為名詞 (學生、生命),它代表了一股向上的氣息。

「生」字出現在萌芽級最後一冊 (第五冊) 的第19課。「生」字可以組成的詞語有很多,正好配合孩子進階到躍進級,學習漢字的一字多義和各種組詞。

 

「生」字基本組詞

以下歸納了一些含「生」字的詞語,所有漢字全部在基礎漢字500課程之內。(英語翻譯純為家長參考)

生手 novice
生動 vivid and lively
生氣 to be angry
生機 vitality
生長 to grow
生還 to survive
生病 to be ill
生父 / 生母 biological father / mother

按此連結參閱共52個詞語。(所列詞語的用字都在基礎漢字500課程之內)

「生」字成語

以下的成語,全部由基礎漢字500課程之內所教的漢字組成,適合信心級/實力級的孩子* 學習。(英語翻譯純為家長參考)

* 有些成語雖然看似簡單,連啟蒙級的孩子都會認讀,但其中的含意還是要等孩子的認知較為成熟才能透徹理解。

天生一對 couple who were made for each other
起死回生 an exceptional recovery (rise from the dead)
長生不老 immortality
出生入死 to go through fire and water

按此連結參閱共13個含「生」字的成語。(所列詞語的用字都在基礎漢字500課程之內)

免費下載練習

我們為小朋友編制了例句填充練習紙 (作業3頁,附答案),家長可以在適當的時候按孩子的水平讓孩子練習。

   

例句所用的漢字全部在思展方程式課程範圍之內。

要是孩子還沒開始寫字,家長亦可跳過填充練習,直接讓孩子認讀句子。

下載初階 - 詞語 (附填充練習) 繁體版 下载初阶 - 词语 (附填充练习) 简体版

以下是含「生」字的成語認讀練習 (2頁),同樣地都取材自思展方程式課程範圍之內。
在練習紙的最後,有兩言家傳戶曉的詩句,節錄自唐代詩人白居易的《赋得古原草送别》。

下載進階 - 成語 (認讀練習) 繁體版 下载进阶 - 成语 (认读练习) 简体版
我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。

要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

If you would like us to discuss certain topics on Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

 

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