A study of “de” 「的/ 得/ 地」的練習

One of the hardest grammar concepts - even for native speakers, is when to use 的 / 地 / 得 as modifiers. When spoken, they all sound the same in some situations, and very similar in the others. In writing, they each have different uses. Understandably, it can get really confusing!

“Even native speakers mess this up” doesn’t sound like a valid reason for children living overseas not to learn the correct way. Rather, it’s something useful to teach your children if literacy and writing is important to you. Bonus: your kids will also learn parts of speech and it’s another way to reinforce Chinese grammar.

For a brief refresher, below are all the different kinds of “de”:

「快樂地歌唱」、「快樂的歌聲」、「唱得很快樂」,完全地不一樣呢。
「的 / 得 / 地」這三個助詞不但小朋友會混淆,甚至我們成人有時也會搞糊塗呢。因此我們特別設計了一些在家可玩的小遊戲,讓小朋友集中練習一下這三個常用的助詞。讓我們先來整理一下這三個助詞:

modifies nouns (person, place, or thing) and adjectives (colour, location)
一般用於名詞 (e.g. 我的爸爸/ 他的書/ 北京的天氣)
或形容詞 (e.g. 高高的山/ 紅色的花/ 前面的路牌/ 渴望的眼神)
modifies verbs (action, state, or occurrence)
一般用於動詞 (e.g. 走得快/ 笑得甜/ 看得入神)
modifies adjectives (phrase that modifies nouns) into adverbs (phrase that modifies verbs)
一般用於將形容詞轉變為副詞
(e.g. 快樂歌聲>快樂歌唱 /
悄悄心底話>悄悄說話 /
傷心眼淚>傷心流淚)

Apart from the activities listed below, you may also be interested in downloading the practice sheet of <得>, which contains 9 sentences for reading practice, and an extensive list of verbs and examples taken from the Basic Chinese 500 course.
除了以下的遊戲,你也可以下載<得>字的練習紙集中學習。練習紙含有句子認讀和短句範例。

《得》字的練習 Practice sheet of <得>

 

ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

Most of these activities focus on matching and decoding which 的/得/地 belong to which situation.
下列四個遊戲主要是認字配對形式。


的/得/地 Picture Matching Activity (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Sheets of paper 紙 (裁成大紙卡)
  • Pen/Pencil 筆
  • Various pictures of people, animals, objects, people/animals/objects doing things, adjectives 各種人物、動物、用具、動作...等的圖片
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Write 的/ 得/ 地 individually on multiple cards 將三個助詞分別各寫在幾張紙上
  • Print out or provide pictures (in books or magazines) of the various subjects 可列印各種圖片,或從雜誌剪下合用的圖片
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Pass out at least one of each 的/ 得/ 地 card to every child.
  2. Choose a picture (or point to an object in your house, or act out a verb) and ask your child to choose which 的得地 card goes with the picture. Technically, there are no 地 included in the pictures but that’s ok.
  3. Continue until all pictures/examples are used.
  1. 每人派發最少各一張「的/ 得/ 地」字卡
  2. 選一張圖片,請孩子配上一張「的/ 得/ 地」字卡
  3. 繼續遊戲,直到圖片用光為止
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on the age of your child, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by:

  1. Adding pictures of adjectives. This is harder because it takes a bit longer to realize the picture is referring to the adjective rather than the object or action.
  2. If your children are really young, you may want to remove 1-2 的/得/地.
  1.  加入帶有形容的圖片,增加難度 (孩子需要慢慢才意適到圖片的重點在形容詞而不在物件或動作本身)
  2. 年幼的孩子可減少「的/ 得/ 地」字卡張數。

的/得/地 Matching Activity(A) 配對遊戲(A) (age 3+, single or multi players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Sheets of paper 紙
  • Pen/Pencil 筆
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Write 的/ 得/ 地 individually on multiple cards 分別將「的/ 得/ 地」寫在多張紙卡上
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Mix up the cards and place them face down on the floor.
  2. Have the first child flip over two cards. If they match, they keep the pair and can either go again or have the next child go.
  3. Take turns until all cards are paired.
  1. 將字卡洗均勻,字面向下放在地上 (或桌面)
  2. 第一位孩子翻兩張卡。如果成對,孩子可以取走。可選擇同一位孩子繼續,或輪到下一人
  3. 一直輪流玩,直到卡牌全部被取走

 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

If your children are really young, you may want to limit to 2 of the modifier at a time and leave the last one out.
年幼的孩子可以每次只玩兩個助詞。


的得地 Matching Activity (B) 配對遊戲(B) (age 5+, single or multi players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道貝   HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Write 的得地 individually on multiple cards 分別將「的/ 得/ 地」寫在多張紙卡上
  • Also write many characters that are nouns, verbs, adjectives 在其他紙卡再寫上各種名詞、動詞、形容詞
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Shuffle the character cards.
  2. Give each child at least one of each 的 / 得 / 地
  3. Flip over a character card and have each child choose which is the matching 的 / 得 / 地.
  1. 將字卡洗均勻
  2. 每人派發最少各一張「的/ 得/ 地」字卡
  3. 翻開一張名詞、動詞、形容詞字卡,請孩子選配正確的「的/ 得/ 地」字卡

 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on the age of your child, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by:

  1. You can also swap which cards you shuffle (ie: use the 的 / 得 / 地 cards and have your child choose the matching characters)
  2. If your children are really young, instead of having them match 的 / 得 / 地 with the characters, you can use only 的 / 得 / 地
  3. You can also make it more difficult by writing out parts of speech instead of actual characters. (eg: 名詞、動詞、形容詞). However, adjectives can be tricky as it can be used with 的 or 地.
  1. 可以由你選一張「的/ 得/ 地」字卡,然後由孩子配上一張名詞、動詞、形容詞字卡
  2. 年幼的孩子可以從只配「的/ 得/ 地」字卡開始

的/得/地 identifying Activity 識別遊戲 (age 5+, single or multi players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Any book or essay 任何圖書
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Write 的 / 得 / 地 on multiple cards 分別將「的/ 得/ 地」寫在多張紙卡上
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Go through a random page in the book and start pointing out nouns, verbs, adjectives.
  2. Ask your child to put down which 的得地 that goes with the noun/verb/adjective.
  1. 和孩子一起看書,在書中任何一頁指出各個名詞、動詞、形容詞
  2. 請孩子拿出合適的「的/ 得/ 地」字卡配上

    

 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on the age of your child, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by:

  1. First asking your child to identify whether the character you’re pointing out is a noun/verb/adjective.
  2. You can also add a timer to add some pressure (but this might not be fun).
  1. 增加孩子對語法的認識,你可以問孩子你所指的字是哪種詞類 (名詞/動詞/形容詞)

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK

Sometimes, it’s just hard.

We don’t mean that life can be hard (though, it certainly can be). Rather, we mean that sometimes, Chinese is just hard! The characters or lessons or sets can be difficult for your child’s current developmental level or can just be difficult in general.

Be patient even if it seems as if one set is taking months to go through. Your child is forming connections that you can’t see and eventually, it will pay off. You don’t know when – but it will.

Keep going.

很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】

期待與你在群組內會面~

 

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