量詞的微妙之處 Subtlety of classifiers

正確使用量詞可以說是一門學問。量詞在語言學來說可以細分為9類。

名詞的數量遠遠比量詞要多,換句話說,同一個量詞會配不同的名詞使用。這類學習是最常見的,也就是我們平常教導孩子的「單位詞」。

另一方面,同一個名詞,能用的量詞亦往往不止一個。用上了不同的量詞時,表達的意思會有差異。準確地使用量詞,能更明徹地表達一些不言而喻的含意,加強溝通。讓我們來看看以下的一些例子:


Classifiers are a vast topic in learning Chinese. Technically speaking, there are 9 types of classifiers.

As there are many more noun words than classifiers, it means that the same classifier is used for different nouns. It is common for children to practice the basic matches of various nouns and classifiers. This is what we usually start with when teaching children: the Numeratives (or Numerary Adjuncts).

While many nouns can share a common classifier, it is not unusual for the same noun to be used with various different classifiers. In that case, there are often subtle differences in the implied meanings of each different classifier. The accurate use of classifiers is therefore important in effective communication. Below are some examples:

名詞 量詞(1) 量詞(2)
月亮 明月
(這月亮是圓的)
月亮
(今晚的是娥媚月)
白雲
(這雲是一團團的、塊狀的)
白雲
(這雲比較稀薄,面積可大可小)
手/鞋 手/鞋
(只有一隻)
手/鞋
(有兩隻,而且是成對的)
草地 草地
(面積較小,例如在公園裏)
草地
(面積比「一塊草地」要大,可能在山上、河邊...)

(大多是小刀,也可以是大刀)

(是大刀,可以用來砍伐)

(一般描述)

(大多含有貶義,或有點可憐)

(指書本身)

(不是指書,而是指寫成了書的作品,屬於抽象名詞)

孩子在認識了基本量詞的基礎上,再認識和掌握到不同量詞的含意,他們的閱讀理解能力自然會更得到提升。

For additional activities to get your children started practicing classifiers 量詞, please read our other post Fun Ways to practice Chinese Classifiers which offers three fun games.

片 & 張

「張」和「片」的使用有些共通處:相關的名詞物品都比較上薄、有面積。但它們也都會用於其他名詞。
以下是這兩個量詞分別常用的名詞列單,大多數都在基礎漢字500課程之內:

  1. 一般用在薄薄的,有一定硬度的東西:一片餅乾、一片樹葉。
  2. 有時也會帶有「連綿不斷」的感覺:一片大海、一片草原、 一片土地。
  3. 除了實物,「片」還會用在一些抽象名詞上:一片笑聲、一片光明、一片希望、一片黑暗
  1. 和紙張有關的東西:一張照片、一張畫、一張紙、一張名片、一張票。
  2. 形容有一定面積,基本上屬於薄的東西:一張被子、一張床單、一張桌布。
  3. 一些身體部位:一張臉、一張嘴、一張手
  4. 其他:一張弓、一張桌、一張椅

張 and 片 share some common "properties": they are used for objects which are thin and broad. At the same time, they are also used for other nouns.

In the above examples,  片 can be used for: 

  1. something that is thin, such as biscuits (crackers) or leaves
  2. something that's vast and goes on and on, such as the ocean, the meadow, the land
  3. apart from concrete objects, 片 can also be used with abstract nouns, such as laughter, light, hope, darkness.
 張 is often used for: 
  1. paper related objects, such as photo, picture, paper, name card, ticket
  2. something relatively thin and broad: blanket, bed sheet, table cloth
  3. body parts such as the face, the mouth, and the hand
  4. other commonly nouns that use 張 include: bow, table, chair

閱讀練習

要掌握量詞的運用,最好的方法是多讀、多用。以下是為信心級實力級小朋友特別編寫的一首小詩,集中練習「片」字的運用。

歡迎下載、列印,讓小朋友高聲朗讀~

The best way to grasp the use of classifier is through extensive reading and practices. Below is a little poem that focuses on the use of 片, written especially for children who are studying Confident Reader or Fluent Reader. Please feel free to download and print it out for your child to practice reading out loud ~

简体版 (右撃下载)

繁體版 (右撃下載)

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