進階級的成語學習 Higher level Chinese idioms

學習成語最好、最輕鬆的方法是日積月累 (比方說現在馬上把「日積月累」這個成語記下來)。

這次,我們挑選了十個成語,都是在基礎漢字500課程以內的字,已經會握筆抄寫的小朋友還可以做練習。在自己已掌握能認讀的基礎上學習這些成語,也能容易將它們派上用場。

這組成語用了信心級和實力級的字,對達到進階級的小朋友來說會學得更輕鬆,又有新意。

趁着放暑假,可以逐步跟着以下的提示做不同的反覆練習,保管小朋友很快就學會了。

練習方式 HOW TO PRACTICE

  1. 先將下面的列表中的十個成語教孩子讀幾遍。每次3-4個,逐一將意義向孩子解釋清楚。
  2. 利用閱讀練習卡,讓孩子做各種認讀、挑選、排列等練習。
  3. 當孩子都基本上熟練了,下載填充練習紙 (連結在下面)。
    P1-2 每個成語填一個字。P3-4難度增加:每個成語填兩個字。十個相同的成語,就能得到反覆練習。
       
  4. 當孩子都掌握了,讓孩子將每個成語造成一句,寫下來。不會寫的地方由家長幫他寫。

日後有空不時翻開來複習,孩子就徹底地學會了。

 

十個進階成語

成語拼音 PinyinExplanation in English
愛人如己ài rén rú jǐTo love others as you love yourself
風雲人物fēng yún rén wùInfluential figure / the man/woman of the moment
一見如故yī jiàn rú gùFamiliarity at first sight
風吹雨打fēng chuī yǔ dǎWindswept and battered by rain / to undergo hardship
一日三秋yī rì sān qiūA single day apart feels like three years
三五成群sān wǔ chéng qúnIn groups of three or five
汗如雨下hàn rú yǔ xiàTo sweat like a pig (sweating like raining)
明知故問míng zhī gù wènTo ask a question while knowing the answer
日長夜短rì cháng yè duǎnLong days and short nights
為人師表wéi rén shī biǎoTo be a worthy teacher
下載繁體版 Traditional Chinese version 下载简体版 Simplified Chinese version

 

造句示範

下面讓我們來利用學會的成語寫些句子吧。

夏天到了, 日長夜短 。放假的時候,小朋友們都 三五成群 地到海邊去。大熱天氣,大家 一見如故 ,一起玩得 汗如雨下 ,也拍下了好多歡樂的埸面。


哪個 風雲人物 不是經過長期的 風吹雨打 ,才能得到最後的成功呢?


叔叔 為人師表 ,工作認真,又事事做到 愛人如己 ,我長大也要學他一樣。

以上用的字,全部都在基礎漢字500課程以內的喔。

小朋友也來寫下自己的句子吧。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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Oscar 媽媽的經驗分享 – 認識中文的美麗

在注重兩文三語教育的香港,不少家長會感到教小朋友學習認讀英文比較容易入手:26個字母,一下就全記住了。

家長都普遍感到:認中文字其實很難,學寫中文字更加難。Oscar媽媽親身感到「因為漢字體系由左至右,先外後內, 先撇後捺…學習中文字除了要認字之外,還要學習筆順 (有些筆順與家長小時學習過的早已不甚相同)。 字如果要寫得好看,小朋友還要掌握空間比例,總總對小小孩來說一點都不容易」。

Oscar媽媽本人最愛中文,「因為中文字美麗的地方就是一個字便是一個故事,所以用圖像或故事形式去幫助認字,這樣對小朋友來說是會增加學習中文的樂趣」。

在為Oscar選擇中文認字教材時,她採用了《基礎漢字500》。經過試用後,她和Oscar都喜愛上圖書的編排,認為「的確是一套專為學前兒童打造的、科學性的漢語文學法和識字法」。 對於出版社設計整整500課的思展方程式課程,「一開始令我望而生畏,感到無從入手」。不過,在跟着說明使用之後,便感到「其實很簡單」。

 小孩 

4歲半兒子 (開始:4歲;目前:快完成萌芽級)

4歲半的Oscar的語言發展進入高度敏感期,他很喜歡閱讀和學習新的字詞。目前學到萌芽級 (第二級)(綠色),希望能快些學到下一級躍進級 (橙色),相信能教導他更上層樓的進度。


 本人原述 

1. 你為甚麼會選用思展圖書?

因為很多家長推薦,也聽說很多海外華人家庭都用這套書教孩子學漢字,都學得很好。

2. 請談談你使用思展圖書的經歷。

Oscar每天最少讀2次 (早、晚各一次),每次5課。因為所有課文都只有5句 (5頁),每句最長只有12個字,所以每次只需5分鐘以下就可以完成,很適合專注時間不長的Oscar。

3. 請你分享一下使用基礎漢字500的體驗。每次閱讀的過程是怎樣? 有沒有配合其他活動?

我手上的《基礎漢字500》萌芽級 (第二級)(綠色) 是新版,每一課的生字上面加上了筆順 (我看部份家長手上舊版的好像沒有筆順。)  Oscar見到就會馬上取出白紙照着筆順練習摹寫。

我也會搭配「讀書郎」App,讓Oscar逐課利用朗讀音檔一起學習。

我也有利用字卡讓Oscar造句。在找尋字卡的過程中,他除了認字更能複習學過的生字,加強印象之餘而延伸到造句做實際演練,效果很好。

我們也有讀寶貝盒的故事。我喜歡那些故事內容比《基礎漢字500》的課文形式更多變化,單字也得到了更多不同組合,Oscar可以學到同一個字的新的用法和組合。而且同一級的故事題才很多元化,但又不太複雜,Oscar大部分能自己閱讀和理解,然後我會再和他談談內容。

        

4. 思展圖書最讓你喜歡的是甚麼?有沒有你不喜歡的地方呢?

我覺得最棒的是,出版社設計上把所有課文都有5頁設計加插相關文字的小故事,像繪本般有着大幅圖畫以及端正楷書、加大字體,這是特別適合孩子閱讀。另外還有普通話拼音,中英對照。很適合香港的小朋友學習兩文三語。

5. 如果你要再教一名孩子,還會使用思展圖書嗎?

一定會!

6. 請你為現在快要開始的家長提供一些心得和建議。

思展有很多周邊的學習資源,都是免費,家長應該多加利用。

好像新版的基礎漢字500每一冊末有幾頁的練習像是連連看、著色的小遊戲,就可以加深學習印象。

思展出版社部落格上有着豐富的語文練習、家長育兒歷程分享、免費學習資源下載… 也有豐富的專業文章,提供育兒和教育資訊。 我就剛下載過情感詞彙學習,覺得很實用。

另外「閱讀練習卡」是字卡式的設計,我覺得家長要多加利用,配合《基礎漢字500》的課程設計,5套一共也有500張閱讀練習卡。每張卡都有:級別、冊數、及課文標記,不怕亂,也好收拾整理。 初階使用可以用閃卡記憶方式單純認字,中階使用可以利用認閱讀練習卡設計一些小遊戲,讓孩子集中練習像是容易混淆的字。像是設計一些簡單的家庭遊戲活動: 接龍、翻牌遊戲…都可以利用字卡來讓孩子覺得學習中文是有趣而生動的。

   

...

感謝 Oscar 媽媽與我們的分享。

雖然中文看似比英文難,但中文是很美麗的語文,只要有好的方法,孩子可以學得很輕鬆很開心。希望Oscar媽媽的分享能為你帶來新的鼓舞。加油喔~!

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詞彙學習 The etymology and usage of [打]

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。


「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

其他組詞 Vocabulary study


躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:


打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

 啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER 

打人 to hit someone
打下 to shoot down
打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
打鳥 to shoot a bird
打手 a hired thug
打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
打開 to open
打天下 to seize power
打草 to make a draft
打家 (劫舍) to rob

 萌芽級 BUDDING READER 

打中 to hit a target
打風 To experience a typhoon
打氣 to cheer
打魚 to fish
打比方 to give an analogy
打火 to light a fire
(打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
打住 to stop, to halt
打點 to get ready, to put things in order
打坐 to meditate
打聽 to ask around, to enquire
打耳光 to slap
打不過 To be unable to beat
打從 ever since

 躍進級 BEGINNING READER 

打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
打更 to sound the night watch
打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
打洞 to punch a hole
打動 to move emotionally
打嘴巴 to slap

 信心級 BEGINNING READER 

打電話 to make a phone call
打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
打傘 to hold up an umbrella
打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
打字 to type
打字機 a typewriter
打分 to grade or mark
打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
打傷 to injure

 實力級 BEGINNING READER 

打球 to play ball
打遊戲機 to play video game
打掃 to clean up
打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
打滾 to roll about
打結 to tie a knot
打破 to break, to smash
打圓場 to smooth things over

 成語 idioms 

打成一片 to integrate
打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
打發時間 to kill time
打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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漢語中的比較詞 Let’s compare

對英語文法稍有認識的人,都會知道英語的 comparative 和 superlative 的詞彙和法則 (一般來說是形容詞/副詞加 er 或 est,或在前面加上 more 或 the most)。

中文有這類比較詞嗎?

當然有。

最顯淺、直接的方法,可以和英語文法對照的,是在形容詞/副詞前面加上「更」或「最」。

When we make comparisons in English, we use comparatives and superlatives.
The equivalents in Chinese is to add 更 or 最 respectively, such as the examples below.

  • 哥哥跳得高,學長跳得高,體育老師跳得高。
  • 面包好吃,餃子好吃,蔥油餅好吃!
  • 走路的時候要小心,走梯級的時候要小心,天雨過馬路的時候要小心!

英語的 superlative 有時會用完全不同的字來表達。例如,雖然 the best 是 good 的最高層次,但 wonderful 或 excellent 就明顯地更優越了。

中文也一樣:真正能表達各種不同程度的方法並不在於單純地加上「更」或「最」,而是選用完全不同的詞。下面的例子就能說明準確的用詞怎樣能確切地表達意思,同時令文章更生動傳神。

Apart from the use of 更 or 最, there are many other adjectives and adverbs in Chinese that express different levels or intensity of a description. This is quite similar to the use of "wonderful" or "excellent" other than "the best" in English.
Below are some examples.

基本詞 升級 厲害
快樂 歡天喜地 歡騰
哭 (淚汪汪) 淚如雨下 呼天搶地
美麗 嬌艷 國色天香
進步 循序漸進 突飛猛進
幫忙 成全 雪中送炭
努力 全力 極力
退步 惡化 一落千丈
比不上 黯然失色 望塵莫及
一樣 半斤八兩 棋逢敵手
相對立 格格不入 水火不容
困難 好不容易 艱巨
難過 悲哀 傷心欲絕
稱讚 嘉許 拍案叫絕
取笑 嘲笑 恥笑
批評 指責 評擊
藥到病除 妙手回春 起死回生
一眼關七 一目十行 一覽無遺

從詞到句 On the sentence level

要比較數量、程度等,我們還可以用比較句去表達。當兩件事物不一樣時,我們通常會用「比」字來表達。

Apart from words, there are also comparative sentence structures in Chinese. In most cases, the word 比 is used.

  • 哥哥我大兩歲。
  • 昨天的雨下得今天大。

用「比」字的時候,要是兩種相比的事物都已達到一定的水平,可以加用「更」、「再」、「還」突出情況來。

When the two objects or actions being compared are of a similar level, we use 更 / 再 / 還 to emphasise the superiority of one of them.

單用「比」 「比」+ 「更」/「再」/「還」
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的不好看。)
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的也好看。)
我吃得比你多。
(你吃得不多。)
我吃得比你多。
(你也吃很多。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他可能來得不晚,可是其他人都比他早。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他來得很晚,而且最晚。)

上面的是「增值」的例子,強調前面的事物的程度比後面的事物要高、要強。如果我們要從相反角度去說,就會用「沒有」/「不如」。一般我們還會在形容詞/副詞前面加上「那麼」。

While 比 is used in affirmative sentences, 沒有 / 不如 is used in negative statements. In these cases, the word 那麼 is often used in conjunction.

  • 藍色的沒有紅色的那麼好看。/  藍色的不如紅色的那麼好看。
  • 沒有我吃得那麼多。/  你不如我吃得那麼多。
  • 其他人沒有他來得那麼晚。/  其他人不如他來得那麼晚。

以上我們探討了漢語中利用字詞和句式兩個層面的比較方法。

上面列出的比較詞詞例雖然只是漢語詞彙庫的冰山一角,但已能讓我們感受到詞彙的力量:豐富的詞彙量能讓我們貼切地表達不同程度的描述,同時增加文章的色彩。對現時在求學階段的孩子來說,增加詞彙量不但有助他們的智力發展,更能幫助他們充分地表達自己人思想和意見。對我們成年人來說,豐富的詞彙量也同樣有利於職場競爭力和人際關係。要增加詞彙量,最好方法是閱讀、閱讀、再閱讀優質的文章,另外少不了的是多寫、多練。

當然,有研究指出,「詞彙量大的學生並不一定能寫出高質量的作文」。是否能寫出漂亮的文章還取決於寫作策略和其他相關的能力,而思展部落格的文章一直不斷從多方面探討多寫多練和如何養成這些能力的方法。歡迎大家多參閱我們的各類文章。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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Games to learn the character 去

Last week we discussed the various meanings of 去 and how it is used. This week, we will use some activities to help children get familiar with this word.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

These games should be played after your child has learnt the character 去 from the Basic Chinese 500 book (Beginning Reader, book 2, lesson 11).

I want to... (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 (from Beginning Reader) + 2 more study cards (the 2 cards can be random but should both be from Beginning Reader) (or make your own word cards)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay the 3 study cards in front of your child. Ask your child to point out 去. (If they get it wrong, simply point out the correct one to them)
  2. Lay the location and the activity images in front of the child.
  3. Tell your child that you want to go to a place, or to do something (e.g. to the park: 我要去公園。/ to go fishing: 我要去釣魚。)
  4. Ask your child to put the card 去 on top of the correct image card. If they have done correctly, they can keep the image card.
  5. Mix up the 3 study cards again, shuffle their places and lay them out in front of your child.
  6. Repeat the game, until all the images have been used up.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 
  1. If you child is very young or is just starting out, focus only on the locations first, and then the activities.
  2. You could also ask your child to choose where they want to go, by asking them: 你要去哪裏? or what they want to do: 你要去做甚麼?
  3. Encourage them to say out the sentence of where they are going or what they are going to do.
  4. Multiple children can take turns to play this game together.

Pushing 去 around (age 3+)

This game should be played after the first game above. You could use the same set of image cards as above.

 WHAT THE CHILD LEARNS 學到甚麼 
  • When speaking, 去 can also be placed after an action, but not after a location, as demonstrated below.
    我去買東西。 =我買東西去。
    我去書店。 (but NOT *我書店去。)
 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 and我. You could also add the optional 要 (all of these are from Beginning Reader)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay out the cards 我(要)去. Ask your child to read out these characters.
  2. Pick a location or an action and place it after 去.
  3. Ask your child to say the whole sentence, including the image or the action.
  4. Place the 去 card after the image card and ask your child to say the whole sentence according to the new order. Does it sound right?
  5. Repeat the game until all the image cards have run out.
  6. After playing enough times, your child will have a feeling of the rule of where 去 should be placed.
  7. You could use new image cards from time to time, to add interest and keep your child engaged.

Reading practice (age 4.5+)

Now let's put what we have learnt together and do some reading. The sentences below focus on the 8 words below, 4 of them with 去 at the end, and 4 at the beginning of each word:

過去 / 回去/ 下去 / 離去

去年 / 去向 / 去掉 / 去皮

Children who are studying Building Reader or above should be able to read all of the sentences below on their own.

4 words with 去 at the end

  1. 過去我不會唱歌,現在會了。
  2. 天黑了,公園裏的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小貓從樹上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火車帶着老師,慢慢地離去了。

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 过去我不会唱歌,现在会了。
  2. 天黑了,公园里的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小猫从树上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火车带着老师,慢慢地离去了。

4 words with 去 at the beginning

  1. 今年我長得比去年高了。
  2. 小鳥飛得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一點,就變成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的時候會去皮嗎?

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 今年我长得比去年高了。
  2. 小鸟飞得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一点,就变成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的时候会去皮吗?

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK 老編心得

Add variety to promote learning.
Children learn in different ways. They don’t only learn through visual, or audio, or a single way. Rather, each channel creates a different imprint in the brain and together they form the child’s overall knowledge. When we engage children in various activities to learn one concept, those experiences enhance each other and leave a much deeper impression. Let children touch, move, listen, read, watch… and enriched learning will happen.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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去 – more than the opposite of 來

In a previous post, we looked at the character 來. In this post, we will take a look at its opposite: 去.

ancient writing

The ancient writing of 去 is a person on top of a cave (his home), meaning someone leaving where he is living (the house, or the homeland). The shape evolved and become the present day 去.

Han dynasty writing

The radical of 去 is 厶, which is counted as 2 strokes. 去 has a total of 5 strokes.

Basic meaning of 去

The most basic meaning of 去 is “to, to go”.

去 can be a one word sentence on its own: 「去!」which is giving an order for someone to go (away, forward, …).
Some common uses of 去 are:

  • 去 + place >> 我去學校。 (I go to school.)
  • 去 + action >> 我去買東西。(I go shopping.)

* all of the examples quoted in this post are characters taught in the Sage Formula curriculum, unless otherwise specified.


Examples of words containing 去

As with many other characters, 去 can combine with other characters to form new words. Some of these words have very little to do with its original meanings. In general, it signifies the removal or reduction of something. It can be a verb, or an adverb. Below are some examples:

去 as a verb:

  • 去掉 – to remove, to eliminate
  • 去世 – to pass away
  • 去皮 – to peel
  • 失去 – to lose
  • 抺去 – to erase
  • 除去 – to eliminate
  • 離去 – to leave
  • 一去不回 – gone forever

去 as an adverb:

  • 去年 – last year
  • 去向 – whereabouts
  • 去路 – outlet, the path one is following
  • 比下去 – to be superior to
  • 不知去向 – gone missing

過去 and 下去 are two very commonly used words. We will take a closer look at these two below.

過去

There are 3 distinct meanings and usages of this word.

Meaning 1:

"in the past".

Meaning 2:

It can be used together with other verbs to show the direction of the action, such as:

    • 過去 - to go over
    • 走過去 - to walk over
    • 跑過去 - to run over
    • 看過去 - to look over
    • 打過去 - to hit over
    • 踢過去 - to kick over
    • … etc
Meaning 3:

"Passable". Take a look at the examples below:

    • 說得過去 - acceptable (of an excuse or explanation)
    • 說不過去 - inexcusable
    • 過得去 - not too bad
    • 過不去 - to make it difficult for someone, unable to make it through

Pay attention to the use of 不 and 得 in the second pair of examples, as they are not opposites.

下去

While this word can simply mean “to go down”, it also means to carry on doing something, depending on the verb it pairs with, such as:

  • 說下去  to continue to tell
  • 看下去  to continue to watch
  • 聽下去  to continue to listen
  • 寫下去  to continue to write
  • 讀下去  to continue to read
  • 做下去  to continue to do

In the following situations, the words can have either meaning, to show direction or to show continuity, depending on the context:

  • 走下去
  • 爬下去
  • 吃下去

去 and 來

In general, 去 and 來 are considered opposites. They tell of the different location of the speaker in relation to the object, much like “come” and “go”, or “here” and “there”.

上去 go up / 上來 come up
下去 go down / 下來 come down
出去 / 出來
回去 / 回來
帶去 / 帶來
進去 / 進來
送去 / 送來
過去 / 過來

去 and 來 can be used in the same word (or idiom). The most straightforward meaning of this kind of words is to show direction of movements. Let’s look at some examples:

  • 跑來跑去 to run about
  • 飛來飛去 to fly about

Many other action words that involve movements that cause a change in location can be used in the same fashion, such as:

  • 踢 (to kick)
  • 轉 (to turn)
  • 走 (to walk)

In some cases where the verb do not involve movements in location, it gives a sense of back and forth, or in many directions:

說來說去 – all the talks on a subject
看來看去 – examining something from various points
想來想去 – to give all considerations on something
推來推去 – to push and pull others (being rude), everybody trying to evade responsibility and push it to others
眉來眼去 – to exchange flirting looks

It can also be used as an adjective, such as 直來直去, describing someone being very direct and straightforward.

An adjective worth learning is the idiom 死去活來. This idiom gives a very vivid picture when used with the following verbs:

得死去活來 – to be madly in love
得死去活來 – to cry one’s heart out
得死去活來 – to be in excruciating pain
得死去活來 – to be boiling mad
Some exceptional cases

In some cases (such as with the verbs 看 /聽 /吃 /穿), the meaning doesn’t change whether you use 去 or 來:

看上去 / 看起來 – it appears to be
聽上去 / 聽起來 – it sounds like
吃上去 / 吃起來 – when one tastes it
穿上去 / 穿起來 – when one wears it

去 is taught in Book 2 of Beginning Reader, one of the very first words that your child learns. As they learn more characters, they start to learn about different combinations of the characters to build new words.
The best way to expand their vocabulary is to build upon what they have already learnt.
In our coming post, we will share with you some games and activities that you can do at home to expand your child's vocabulary based on 去.

Stay tuned.

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「春風」自家教課程 Spring Homeschooling

一年之計在於春;一生之計在於勤。

剛開了年,小朋友口袋裏裝滿了紅包,肚子裏吃飽了各式各樣的賀歲美食,正是養精蓄銳,為這一年訂下學習目標和計劃的好時機。然後按步就班,讓今年來個大豐收。

最近,我們都經歷着社會的動盪、自然的災害、疫症的威脅、國際關係的變化… 然而,地球始終如一地在轉動運行,時間不會停下來,孩子仍然每分每秒地成長,父母依然要好好把握住他們每個發展的高敏期,給孩子最好的基礎教育。

孩子的啟蒙教育少不了一位好老師,而孩子最好的老師,就是自己的父母。在爸爸媽媽為他安排的舒適、安穩的家庭環境中,有父母親切、溫馨的陪伴和啟導,春風化雨,孩子自然能輕鬆無壓力、健康快樂地學習和成長。

問題來了…

「但是,要教些甚麼?怎樣教呀?」– –很多家長會這樣問。

有方案喔!

思展特別 免費 推出:
「春風」自家教  課程
「春風」自家教課程 特色

  • 十二個活動,讓小朋友「手到、眼到、心到、耳到、口到」地學習
  • 訓練孩子的語文和數理思維能力,加強孩子的認知發展
  • 從基礎開始為孩子塑造學習型大腦,鍛練孩子的:
    • 專注力
    • 邏輯思維
    • 記憶力
    • 視覺辨認
    • 觀察力
  • 編碼基礎練習,助孩子迎接AI世代
  • 為父母提供神經學習科學小提示,教你利用腦神經學最新發現,理解孩子的大腦機能,從而全面提升孩子的終身學習能力
  • 思展方程式的埸景和人物登場,一起陪伴孩子快樂練習
  • 全課程備有繁體版及簡體版
  • 結合遊戲卡,多元化活動延伸學習
  • 完全免費

一個月的課程,隔天發表新內容。

全程12課的「春風」自家教課程內容包括:

課數 學習內容
第一課 [看一看]判別類同字、分類統計、認讀、漢字部件
第二課 [剪一剪] 對稱、認讀、成語、圖形組合、運筆、書寫
第三課 [聽一聽] 聆聽、分類、編碼、統計、認讀
第四課 [比一比] 筆畫、筆順、長短、記憶
第五課 [寫一寫] 書寫、觀察、造句、運筆、邏輯
第六課 [貼一貼] 砌圖、順序、觀察、圖形組合
第七課 [塗一塗] 手眼協調、觀察、造字常識、圖形、成語、記憶
第八課 [拼一拼] 圖形、認讀、觀察、記憶、三維概念
第九課 [連一連] 圖形、漢字部件、認讀、詞彙、手眼
第十課 [說一說] 表達、記憶、左右方位、手眼、重疊概念
第十一課 [想一想] 編碼、觀察、空間轉換、認讀、思維訓練
第十二課 [讀一讀] 朗讀、手眼、字體辨別、破音字

每課除了以上的遊戲紙學習之外,還會有活動的卡牌遊戲活動。

春風得意馬蹄疾... 小朋友也快馬加鞭,精神奕奕地一起來遊戲中學習吧。

「春風」自家教 Spring Homeschooling
更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。在自家教的過程中,這種群體支持力量就更重要了。
歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

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JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
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Greetings in Chinese

Many parents have written to us about our article on Chinese greetings, asking for pronunciations of the greetings.
Below is the same list with pinyin added.

日常的問候語 Everyday greetings

日常招呼/問候
Everyday salutation
  • 早安 /zǎo ān/!
  • 你好 /nǐ hǎo/!(叔叔 /shū shu /好!阿姨 /ā yí/好!XXX好!)
  • 午安/wǔ ān/!
  • 晚上好/wǎn shàng hǎo/!
  • 晚安 /wǎn ān/!
  • 多謝 /duō xiè/!(謝謝你 /xiè xiè nǐ/!)
  • 對不起 /Duì bù qǐ/!
  • 請問… /qǐng wèn/
  • 再見 /zài jiàn/!拜拜 /bài bài/!
家中有親友來看望
When friends come to your home
  • 歡迎 /huān yíng/!
  • 請進 /qǐng jìn/!
  • 請坐 /qǐng zuò/!
  • 請喝水 /qǐng hē shuǐ/!(捧水/茶要兩隻手喔 Offer drinks with both hands)
逢年過節的時候...
Holidays & festivals
  • XX節快樂 /xx jié kuài lè/!(聖誕節 /shèng dàn jié/ 端午節 /duān wǔ jié/ 中秋節 /zhōng qiū jié/ 情人節 /qíng rén jié/…)
  • 新年快樂 /xīn nián kuài lè/!
送禮物給朋友時
When you give a present
  • 希望你喜歡。/xī wàng nǐ xǐ huān/
  • 小小意思,不成敬意。/xiǎo xiǎo yì si, bù chéng jìng yì/
個別情況
Individual situations
  • (需要道歉時 apologise) 對不起!/duì bù qǐ/
  • (請人讓路 ask to get past someone) 不好意思!請讓一讓!/bù hǎo yì si, qǐng ràng yī ràng/
  • (收到禮物 when receiving presents) 多謝 /duō xiè/!謝謝/xiè xiè/!
  • (回答別人對你感謝 when people thank you) 沒關係 /méi guān xì/!不用謝 /
    bù yòng xiè/!不必客氣 /bù bì kè qì/!
  • (用餐起筷前 at the start of a meal) [xx長輩] 吃飯 /xxx(the senior person) /chī fàn/!
在歡樂喜慶的日子 On happy days

 生日 Birthdays 

  • 生日快樂!/shēng rì kuài lè/
  • 年年有今日,歲歲有今朝!/nián nián yǒu jīnrì, suì suì yǒu jīnzhāo/
  • 福如東海!壽比南山! (老人家生日) /fú rú dōng hǎi, shòu bǐ nán shān/ (for elderly people's birthdays)

 婚禮 Weddings 

  • 恭喜!/gōng xǐ/
  • 永結同心!/yǒng jié tóng xīn/
  • 白頭到老!/bái tóu dào lǎo/
在所難免的難過日子 Unavoidable sad days

 探病 Visiting the ill 

  • 早日康復!/zǎo rì kāng fù/
  • 保重身體!/bǎo zhòng shēn tǐ/

 喪禮 Funeral 

  • 節哀順變 /jié āi shùn biàn/

You may also like to play the Chinese greetings chatterbox game for more practice with your children.

Chinese Greetings Chatterbox

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

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JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)

We’d love to hear from you.

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何以見得⋯?

當我們說起一些很常用但本身又不帶甚麼意思的字,大家都會舉例:
「的的、了了,之乎者也囉。」

其實,這裏還有一個毫不起眼卻又很常用的字:

原來,「以」是一個象形字,意思是「用來做⋯、當作⋯、認為⋯」。例如:以牙還牙、以一擋十。

「以」也可以是一個連接詞,例如:以前、以來、以內⋯

「以」字有點抽象,不能單獨一個字讓孩子理解,更沒辦法用一張認圖看字卡去學習。以句子的形式和應用實例就比較容易理解。

「以」字在萌芽級第五冊教授,在整個思展方程式課程中出現過的形式有:以前,以後,可以,以為,所以,以外。

吃東西以前要洗手。 萌芽級
洗手以後就吃點心。 萌芽級
小蟲長大以後是美麗的蝴蝶。 躍進級
可以做成很多東西。 躍進級
石橋上面可以走車子。 躍進級
蝴蝶以為這朵花是真的。 躍進級
因為到晚上了,
所以大家要睡覺了。
信心級
除了桌子以外
我們還要搬什麼?
實力級

「以」還是一個部件,可以配上其他部首:

  • 似 - 相似
  • 姒 - (古代美人周幽王王后)褒姒 / 古代稱姐姐

簡體中文會利用「以」字作為形聲字:

  • 拟 =擬
  • 苡 =薏 (米)
  • 笖 =笋

「以」+方向

以+東 / 南 / 西 / 北 / 左 /右:從所說點算起的那個方向的範圍

/以:一張清單或數量的範圍

/以:時間的先或後

:從所說的時間或事件起計的期間

:過去

其他詞例及英文翻譯參考

由「以」字組成的詞很多,以下所列的是包含在思展方程式課程範圍之內、或較容易讓小朋友理解的詞彙:

不以為然not to accept as correct
不以為意not to mind, unconcerned
何以見得how can you be sure?
難以相信hard to believe, incredible
信以為真to take something to be true
難以自已cannot control oneself, to be beside oneself
有生以來since birth
不知所以to not know the reason
習以為常accustomed to
數以百計hundreds of
學以致用to study something to put it to use
以牙還牙,以眼還眼a tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye
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Reading out loud

Reading out loud has long been touted as a staple in child education, whether it’s reading passages of a book out loud in the classroom, or reading a bedtime story at home.

Benefits for child development include improved memory, stronger focus, increased confidence, and more fluent speech – also making it a particularly effective activity for effective language study.

THE BENEFITS OF READING OUT LOUD

 Digest and retain information 

In 2015, the University of Montreal (Canada) conducted a study that showed that people were able to digest and retain information more easily when it was read out loud to them, compared to if they simply read the information in their heads. To add to this, another study in 2017 by the University of Waterloo  (Canada) concluded that information recall was even greater when subjects read out loud themselves, as opposed to having someone else read to them. This is greatly thanks to the additional motor act (from speaking), on top of the auditory input.

These findings point to a major benefit of reading aloud with children: increased retention of information. In other words, reading to your children, or even better still, encouraging them to read to you, boosts their memory and helps them remember content faster, and for a longer time.

 Build confidence and fluency 

This is especially useful when trying to teach your child a new language, or raising a bilingual child. Reading out loud not only allows your child to get a better ‘feel’ of the language on their tongue, but also helps them to retain new vocabulary, expressions and stories longer. Furthermore, the increased practice of speaking out loud and hearing themselves speak will build their confidence in expressing themselves, and help make their speech become more fluent and eloquent in the long run.

 Better communication skills 

In fact, in Minnesota, USA, the association ‘Reading Education Assistance Dogs’ (R.E.A.D.) connects children with volunteer therapy dogs, who act as reading companions! Children are able to read to the specially trained dogs, helping them improve their reading and communication skills with a judgement-free, attentive and patient listener. This scheme has proven to be a great success: aside from strengthening their reading skills, participating children have been said to have made huge progress in confidence, self-esteem and social skills.

A similar program has also been introduced to Finland since 2011.

READING OUT LOUD with the SAGE FORMULA

You can easily start reading out loud with your child using your Sage Formula sets.

  1. If they cannot read yet, your child can start by listening to the recordings (available as CDs/MP3/Read-Along App) while following along with the books.
  2. Once they are able to memorise and read the characters, encourage your child to start reading a couple chapters of the books out loud to you. Start with maybe one or two chapters, and move upwards from there to strengthen your child’s reading endurance.
    The very gradual increase in complexity of the characters and sentences ensures that your child will never feel too out of their depths, which is paramount in building their confidence.
  3. Once your child is comfortable with reading a level of Basic Chinese 500 books, consider first practicing reading the associated Treasure Box books out loud, before moving on to the next level.
    This way, your child will work up from reading more basic sentences to more complex one with a structured narrative, all without being overwhelmed by too many new characters.
  4. A fun activity you could do with your child is to let them write and illustrate their own stories, then have them read them to you out loud. They’ll not only have a lot of fun imagining and creating their own worlds, but will also develop reading, creative and artistic skills in the process. For more ideas and suggestions on these reading activities, please refer to our library of Learning Journal. To get you started on helping your child to craft their own story and read it back to you, please refer to this activity post.

References

Alexis Lafleur, Victor J. Boucher, The ecology of self-monitoring effects on memory of verbal productions: Does speaking to someone make a difference?, Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 36, November 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.06.015.

Eirini Zormpa, Laurel E. Brehm, Renske S. Hoedemaker, Antje S. Meyer. (2019) The production effect and the generation effect improve memory in picture naming. Memory 27:3, pages 340-352.

R.E.A.D.: http://www.readdogsmn.org/#


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
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