4 tips from experienced parents on learning Chinese, praising kids, appreciating poetry

自家教心得分享 Chinese homeschooling tips from experienced parents

無論你家孩子是剛開始蒙學習,或是已能自立閱讀,還能念上幾句古詩,自家教對父母來說都會是一種挑戰。
甚麼情況下要抓緊?甚麼時候放鬆?
這一輯的中英對照家長心得,是一些家長過來人的經驗之談,或許能供你借鏡。

Tip #1

學古詩其實並不難

詩歌,本來就是詩人用來抒發情緒,大多數不外是有感而發的作品,刻意去追究「層次」和「意境」就太掃興了。利用孩子對語文韻律的興趣和敏感度,引導孩子自發地去體會古詩的押韻、對偶、用詞,更能加深孩子對詩歌的記憶和體會。

The beauty of poetry

We recommend emphasizing the beauty, rhythm, and surprise of the language used in poetry instead of dissecting and examining the poems unto death. Nothing kills joy like being forced to find “deep meaning” in an art form that is meant to express feeling and ideas in a symbolic way.

 

Tip #2 肯定孩子的成就

任何大小進步都是值得慶賀的成就。

小至記認到一個簡單的生字,大至自己獨立完成閱讀一本故事書,又或者看完一整套的寶貝盒⋯ 這些都是孩子語文發展的成績,都值得你為他慶賀。

孩子都喜歡得到別人的讚許。當父母能認同他們所付出的努力和達到的進步,他們更會滿心歡喜、加強自信。哪怕是對他們的學習態度的小小一句讚賞,都能令孩子產生優越感,而將學習和喜悅聯想起來,變得更喜愛學習呢。

Celebrate your child's success

Did your child finally remember a particularly difficult character? Did they finish the first book? Did they happily read through a Treasure Box book with ease? All these incremental achievements, no matter how small, can be celebrated.

Children love to be praised and will glow with happiness if you acknowledge their effort and improvement. Even if it’s just to congratulate your child on having a good attitude, find a way to make your child feel important and special. They will associate joyful feelings with learning Chinese and as a result, want to do more of it.

Tip #3 學習的最終目的

學習語文的目的是為了溝通:可以是言談溝通,也可以是文字溝通。

在孩子學習認讀和書寫的過程中,總會遇上困難。不要為了記認某個生字、某個標準讀音或某個筆順而糾結,令孩子產生挫敗感。只要孩子的語言發展能循序漸進,達到溝通的目的,就應該將注意力放在他的能力所及之處,為他打氣。

Keep your end goal in mind

The point of teaching our children Chinese is to communicate.

Sometimes, in the midst of trying to cram characters and stroke orders into our children, we forget that the entire purpose of helping our kids learn Chinese is to be able to communicate. Whether it is with ourselves, our families, or other people who speak Chinese, the short term goals of passing tests and memorizing words are meaningless without considering the bigger picture.

Chinese is spoken and read by more than a billion people. It is in the hopes of being able to communicate effectively and easily with these people that we go through this journey of Chinese literacy.

 

Tip #4 完美 vs 過得去

不要去追求完美。

思展部落格介紹的各種遊戲也許看起來有點複雜,但其實很多都是在家中簡單就可以做到的。像這款bingo部首遊戲,簡單地用手寫在紙上就立即可以玩。

在自家教的過程中,不必太在意道具做得是否完美,更不必追求達到IG級。只要孩子能懂、會玩,那就已經是最好的啦。

Perfect vs good enough

Don’t let perfection get in the way of good enough.

Many of our activities can seem intimidating if you tend towards perfectionism. But truthfully, they can be done in a quick and slapdash sort of manner. If you note, the BINGO card made was not fancy - it was just handwritten on a piece of paper.

Do what you need to get something done. Don’t worry about how pretty it is or “should be.” If your child can understand or use it, it’s perfect.

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親子對話:時間的見證

小青買東西的故事圍繞着一個主題:小青做事很慢,因此而誤了時間,導致迷了回家的路。

就如書中附錄的《給家長的信》中所說,小孩子的身軀本來就比我們的小,做事的能力、氣力和熟練程度都不如成人,慢,是必然的。我們應該要理解他們,盡量幫助他們用自己的能力,以他們可以應付的速度去完成任務。這是從父母角度的體會。

從科學角度的親子探討

主角小青在故事中要面對的難題是她迷路了。
可是,為甚麼慢就會使她迷路呢?

這可是一個和孩子探討時間概念的好機會喔。

在我們的日常生活中,有一件事是永恆不變的,那就是時間的流逝。即使所有的鐘錶都停了,時間還是會一點一滴地過去。

時間的見證在哪裏?

1. 在孩子每天的成長

孩子的頭髮會越來越長,人越長越高,乳齒會脫落,恆齒會長出;每年的生日孩子都長大一歲。這些事物的轉變都只會朝着一個方向轉變,不會倒轉:牙齒不會退生回去、人不會越長越矮、我們的年紀不會變小。

這些就是時間不斷向前的見證。

2. 身邊事物的變化

只要孩子留心觀察一下身邊事物,就不難發現時間留下的足跡和影響:晾着的衣物會變乾,食物放在一邊過幾天就會變壞,放久了的紙張會發黃,色彩會褪變。

你可以和孩子做一個簡單的實驗:

將一小杯的水放在一旁,不喝、不倒掉、不加添。
每天量一量,就會發現水會越來越少,直到最後完全乾掉。

你可以進一步向孩子解釋其中的科學道理。但這個現象本身就是對時間流逝最直接簡單的見證。

3. 自然界的變化

每天的日出日落是時間最好的證明。自古以來,人們就已經利用日規的影子的長短和方向來標記時間。

你也不妨和孩子來一個小活動:

 道具 :指南針
 做法 :和孩子一起去公園,先利用指南針辨認出方向,可以用周邊的樹木或大廈作為標記。

早上 – 孩子面向太陽:他在地上的影子指向的是西方,他的左邊向,右邊向

傍晚 – 孩子面向太陽:他在地上的影子指向的是東方,他的左邊向,右邊向

當孩子做過了這個活動,他就會明白故事中的小青為什麼會迷路了。

這樣通過實際行動去探索原因,找尋答案,是培養孩子科學精神的第一步。而從生活中學習就最能讓孩子留下深刻的印象。

語文學習

趁着這個機會,讓我們再教孩子一些關於時間的成語、諺語和哲理吧:

成語 光陰似箭   日月如梭 形容時間流逝的快速
諺語 一寸光陰一寸金   寸金難買寸光陰 比喻時間的寶貴
詩歌學哲理 萌芽級寶貝盒 《青春舞曲》 講述時間一去不復返

小青買東西是十二生肖系列故事其中一冊。這套故事繪本系列以不同風格的精美手繪,從孩子的角度和視線出發,藉着十二位性格各有獨特的孩子的各種經歷和趣事,吸引孩子培養閱讀的樂趣。除了全文註有普通話拼音之外,更附有英語翻譯。隨書附送英語/粵語/普通話伴讀CD,是培養兩文三語的閱讀良伴。

每個故事同時附有「給家長的信」,與家長探討孩子成長過程中的各種心路歷程,幫助你理解孩子的情緒和心理,配合相關的親子對話和探索活動,是你輔導孩子學習情緒管理的入門指南。

請繼續留意陸續發表的相關文章、練習、活動和其他資源。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

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JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

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Games to learn the character 去

Last week we discussed the various meanings of 去 and how it is used. This week, we will use some activities to help children get familiar with this word.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

These games should be played after your child has learnt the character 去 from the Basic Chinese 500 book (Beginning Reader, book 2, lesson 11).

I want to... (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 (from Beginning Reader) + 2 more study cards (the 2 cards can be random but should both be from Beginning Reader) (or make your own word cards)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay the 3 study cards in front of your child. Ask your child to point out 去. (If they get it wrong, simply point out the correct one to them)
  2. Lay the location and the activity images in front of the child.
  3. Tell your child that you want to go to a place, or to do something (e.g. to the park: 我要去公園。/ to go fishing: 我要去釣魚。)
  4. Ask your child to put the card 去 on top of the correct image card. If they have done correctly, they can keep the image card.
  5. Mix up the 3 study cards again, shuffle their places and lay them out in front of your child.
  6. Repeat the game, until all the images have been used up.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 
  1. If you child is very young or is just starting out, focus only on the locations first, and then the activities.
  2. You could also ask your child to choose where they want to go, by asking them: 你要去哪裏? or what they want to do: 你要去做甚麼?
  3. Encourage them to say out the sentence of where they are going or what they are going to do.
  4. Multiple children can take turns to play this game together.

Pushing 去 around (age 3+)

This game should be played after the first game above. You could use the same set of image cards as above.

 WHAT THE CHILD LEARNS 學到甚麼 
  • When speaking, 去 can also be placed after an action, but not after a location, as demonstrated below.
    我去買東西。 =我買東西去。
    我去書店。 (but NOT *我書店去。)
 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 and我. You could also add the optional 要 (all of these are from Beginning Reader)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay out the cards 我(要)去. Ask your child to read out these characters.
  2. Pick a location or an action and place it after 去.
  3. Ask your child to say the whole sentence, including the image or the action.
  4. Place the 去 card after the image card and ask your child to say the whole sentence according to the new order. Does it sound right?
  5. Repeat the game until all the image cards have run out.
  6. After playing enough times, your child will have a feeling of the rule of where 去 should be placed.
  7. You could use new image cards from time to time, to add interest and keep your child engaged.

Reading practice (age 4.5+)

Now let's put what we have learnt together and do some reading. The sentences below focus on the 8 words below, 4 of them with 去 at the end, and 4 at the beginning of each word:

過去 / 回去/ 下去 / 離去

去年 / 去向 / 去掉 / 去皮

Children who are studying Building Reader or above should be able to read all of the sentences below on their own.

4 words with 去 at the end

  1. 過去我不會唱歌,現在會了。
  2. 天黑了,公園裏的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小貓從樹上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火車帶着老師,慢慢地離去了。

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 过去我不会唱歌,现在会了。
  2. 天黑了,公园里的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小猫从树上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火车带着老师,慢慢地离去了。

4 words with 去 at the beginning

  1. 今年我長得比去年高了。
  2. 小鳥飛得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一點,就變成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的時候會去皮嗎?

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 今年我长得比去年高了。
  2. 小鸟飞得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一点,就变成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的时候会去皮吗?

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK 老編心得

Add variety to promote learning.
Children learn in different ways. They don’t only learn through visual, or audio, or a single way. Rather, each channel creates a different imprint in the brain and together they form the child’s overall knowledge. When we engage children in various activities to learn one concept, those experiences enhance each other and leave a much deeper impression. Let children touch, move, listen, read, watch… and enriched learning will happen.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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去 – more than the opposite of 來

In a previous post, we looked at the character 來. In this post, we will take a look at its opposite: 去.

ancient writing

The ancient writing of 去 is a person on top of a cave (his home), meaning someone leaving where he is living (the house, or the homeland). The shape evolved and become the present day 去.

Han dynasty writing

The radical of 去 is 厶, which is counted as 2 strokes. 去 has a total of 5 strokes.

Basic meaning of 去

The most basic meaning of 去 is “to, to go”.

去 can be a one word sentence on its own: 「去!」which is giving an order for someone to go (away, forward, …).
Some common uses of 去 are:

  • 去 + place >> 我去學校。 (I go to school.)
  • 去 + action >> 我去買東西。(I go shopping.)

* all of the examples quoted in this post are characters taught in the Sage Formula curriculum, unless otherwise specified.


Examples of words containing 去

As with many other characters, 去 can combine with other characters to form new words. Some of these words have very little to do with its original meanings. In general, it signifies the removal or reduction of something. It can be a verb, or an adverb. Below are some examples:

去 as a verb:

  • 去掉 – to remove, to eliminate
  • 去世 – to pass away
  • 去皮 – to peel
  • 失去 – to lose
  • 抺去 – to erase
  • 除去 – to eliminate
  • 離去 – to leave
  • 一去不回 – gone forever

去 as an adverb:

  • 去年 – last year
  • 去向 – whereabouts
  • 去路 – outlet, the path one is following
  • 比下去 – to be superior to
  • 不知去向 – gone missing

過去 and 下去 are two very commonly used words. We will take a closer look at these two below.

過去

There are 3 distinct meanings and usages of this word.

Meaning 1:

"in the past".

Meaning 2:

It can be used together with other verbs to show the direction of the action, such as:

    • 過去 - to go over
    • 走過去 - to walk over
    • 跑過去 - to run over
    • 看過去 - to look over
    • 打過去 - to hit over
    • 踢過去 - to kick over
    • … etc
Meaning 3:

"Passable". Take a look at the examples below:

    • 說得過去 - acceptable (of an excuse or explanation)
    • 說不過去 - inexcusable
    • 過得去 - not too bad
    • 過不去 - to make it difficult for someone, unable to make it through

Pay attention to the use of 不 and 得 in the second pair of examples, as they are not opposites.

下去

While this word can simply mean “to go down”, it also means to carry on doing something, depending on the verb it pairs with, such as:

  • 說下去  to continue to tell
  • 看下去  to continue to watch
  • 聽下去  to continue to listen
  • 寫下去  to continue to write
  • 讀下去  to continue to read
  • 做下去  to continue to do

In the following situations, the words can have either meaning, to show direction or to show continuity, depending on the context:

  • 走下去
  • 爬下去
  • 吃下去

去 and 來

In general, 去 and 來 are considered opposites. They tell of the different location of the speaker in relation to the object, much like “come” and “go”, or “here” and “there”.

上去 go up / 上來 come up
下去 go down / 下來 come down
出去 / 出來
回去 / 回來
帶去 / 帶來
進去 / 進來
送去 / 送來
過去 / 過來

去 and 來 can be used in the same word (or idiom). The most straightforward meaning of this kind of words is to show direction of movements. Let’s look at some examples:

  • 跑來跑去 to run about
  • 飛來飛去 to fly about

Many other action words that involve movements that cause a change in location can be used in the same fashion, such as:

  • 踢 (to kick)
  • 轉 (to turn)
  • 走 (to walk)

In some cases where the verb do not involve movements in location, it gives a sense of back and forth, or in many directions:

說來說去 – all the talks on a subject
看來看去 – examining something from various points
想來想去 – to give all considerations on something
推來推去 – to push and pull others (being rude), everybody trying to evade responsibility and push it to others
眉來眼去 – to exchange flirting looks

It can also be used as an adjective, such as 直來直去, describing someone being very direct and straightforward.

An adjective worth learning is the idiom 死去活來. This idiom gives a very vivid picture when used with the following verbs:

得死去活來 – to be madly in love
得死去活來 – to cry one’s heart out
得死去活來 – to be in excruciating pain
得死去活來 – to be boiling mad
Some exceptional cases

In some cases (such as with the verbs 看 /聽 /吃 /穿), the meaning doesn’t change whether you use 去 or 來:

看上去 / 看起來 – it appears to be
聽上去 / 聽起來 – it sounds like
吃上去 / 吃起來 – when one tastes it
穿上去 / 穿起來 – when one wears it

去 is taught in Book 2 of Beginning Reader, one of the very first words that your child learns. As they learn more characters, they start to learn about different combinations of the characters to build new words.
The best way to expand their vocabulary is to build upon what they have already learnt.
In our coming post, we will share with you some games and activities that you can do at home to expand your child's vocabulary based on 去.

Stay tuned.

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造就成功的一半

「志不立,天下無可為之事。」-[明] 王守仁

古人所說的「志」,相當於我們現在所說的「目標」。志,有遠有近:遠的,可以說是人生大志;近的,就是我們的年度大計、季度計劃,甚至你可以看成就是我們在講媽講爸群組中每星期呼籲大家訂立的小目標吧。

別小看這每星期的「立標」喔,所謂「萬里長城,始於足下」,千萬條路都是由一個個的小腳步走出來的。

我們每星期一會與群組成員一起訂立本周目標,每個星期五又和大家一起回顧、總結。這樣就既可以確保不偏離整體長遠目標,同時又可以有彈性地根據每星期的情況調節。歡迎你也來加入我們的群組,與我們一起互相打氣,共同努力,凝聚群體力量,為孩子加油。

我該訂立怎樣的每週目標呢?

你可以從兩個層面去訂立每星期的目標。

一. 作為父母的目標

父母可以說是肩負着人生中最重要、最神聖的責任。如果我們希望孩子學有所成,健康成長,一切的努力都要先從我們自已出發,才能引導孩子。

要是你不每天坐下來和孩子一起翻翻書、講講故事,孩子不可能會受到感染,認識書本、愛上故事。
只有由你主動和孩子玩語文遊戲,為孩子設計、安排好豐富的語文環境,將學習寄寓生活和遊戲之中,孩子的語文世界才會充實、多姿采。

當然,每星期的目標,不要訂得太高、太死。因為生活中總會碰到意想不到的事,所以我們應該要留些彈性。這樣,你會容易達標,為自己增加成功感和正能量。要是你超標了,不就更多個理由自我嘉獎了嗎?

迎接新的一年,以下的各種「每週小目標」能為你帶來些新靈感和啟示嗎?

這個星期我要 (每星期選1-2項就好)
  • 抽四天與孩子共讀
  • 用三句不同的中文讚美語稱讚孩子
  • 為孩子添置 (買/借) 一本新故事書/常識書
  • 參考思展部落格的語文活動,與孩子玩一個語文遊戲
  • 在街上 (或商店/餐廳…) 和孩子一起發掘三個他學過的中文字
  • 聆聽孩子說一個完整的故事
  • 教孩子一個與我們實際生活有關的成語
  • 為孩子說一個歷史小故事,例如:孔融讓梨、韓信胯下受辱
  • 為孩子寫下他的兩項進步,並與他一起分享,為他感到驕傲
  • 耐心鼓勵孩子說完一句完整的話
  • 不要催促孩子,讓他慢慢來

二. 為孩子訂立目標

對於孩子,我們作為父母的,總會有很多期盼:希望他們健康、快樂,學有所成。但同時也有很多擔憂,其中最大的操心是希望孩子能順利考入自己 (說的是父母喔) 心儀的小學,為日後的升學以至人生做一個好的開始。

其實,在孩子的啟蒙時代,有兩方面是最根本重要的:

  • 建立良好的習慣 – 一種慣性、一種自律性、一種主動性
  • 引發對學習的熱忱 – 愛閱讀、愛思考、愛提問

這兩個基礎,能保障孩子的一生在學習,甚至工作方面,都能感到不斷地得到充實,面對難題能有毅力和韌力去克服,過上豐滿的生活。
而習慣和熱忱,只要靠每天、每星期的點滴就不難養成。

當然,與此同時,單就孩子的語文學習和發展來說,我們也必須為他編制一個學習進程的計劃,確保他能得到充分發展。畢竟這是孩子發展語文的高敏時期,機不可失。

未來的一年,一起來朝着這些方向,為孩子訂下每星期的目標吧。
最好能每個星期日傍晚,抽十幾分鐘,和孩子一起制訂計劃喔。

這個星期孩子要 (每星期選1-2項就好)
  • (5天或以上) 每天朗讀3分鐘
  • 自己將看完的書收拾回原來位置
  • 看三本故事書/常識書 (可以重複)
  • 看一本新書
  • 認讀5個新漢字
  • 背誦一句短句
  • 講一個故事給爸爸媽媽聽
  • 留心聆聽一個故事,中間不打斷
  • 學會唱一首新兒歌
  • 學一句急口令/繞口令
  • 認識一位我看過的圖書的作者的名字
  • 講一個故事給弟弟/妹妹聽

這樣,要是你能每週為自己訂立1-2個小目標,同時又為孩子訂立1-2個小目標,日積月累,不用多久你就能看到成績。
我們在群組裏每星期都會有提醒,為你做定時鬧鐘。

趁着現在更年換代,是訂立新年大計的時刻。訂好一年的大目標,然後用每星期的小目標朝着大目標方向前進。
預祝你能有個安排得當、成就滿滿的新一年。

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The etymology of 白

White is the most basic of colours, and plays an important symbolic role in almost every society. In ancient civilizations, such as in Egypt or Rome, white was commonly worn by priestesses, a practice which came to associate purity and chastity with the colour. Today in the United States and many European countries, white is seen to represent perfection, neutrality, chastity, innocence, and many more. It is also the colour of many religious and governmental buildings – take the White House, for example.

How might the colour white represent something different in Chinese culture? In China, white (白) is the colour associated to metal (金), one of the five elements. By extension, white represents purity, righteousness, and confidence. However, white is also a colour associated with death and ghosts, and therefore traditionally is the colour used for mourning and funerals. This is a polar opposite to Western customs!

 

Etymology of 白

There exist two different theories regarding the etymology of the character 白.

The more reliable or popular explanation is that the character originally represented two tongues, one on top of the other, and meant to talk unceasingly. It also meant to do one’s best to explain or persuade. Therefore, we see from this that 白 was originally used as a verb.

Following this explanation, the evolution of 白 would be:

  1. (v.) To report or to talk >>
  2. (v.) to do one’s best to explain >>
  3. (adj.) clear and understood (清白) >>
  4. (adj.) the colour when it is bright (白天 / 雪白) >>
  5. (adj.) empty or does not exist (空白) >>
  6. (adv.) worthless (白活 / 白做)

According to 說文解字 (which is the authority of Chinese characters, by Xu Shen from Han Dynasty) 白 also represents the west. Chinese believe that the dead go to paradise, located in the west (西方極樂世界), which is why we mourn in white to calm or comfort the spirits.

Present day examples of 白 to form verbs would be:

  • 告白 to announce publicly, to reveal one’s feelings to
  • 旁白 narrative
  • 對白 dialogue
  • 辨白 to defend/explain oneself
  • 坦白 to confess
  • 表白 to explain oneself or to reveal one’s thought or feelings

A second theory

However, a second theory was that 白 was the image of a candle flame, with the centre stroke representing the wick. In this case, 白 means the colour white, or clear, as it does in 白色. Some also theorised that it was the shape of sun rays, coming from the top of the character. However, this theory does not explain the many other uses of 白.

Words formed with 白

白 is one of the most common words in everyday use and also one of the first words that a child learns. Its basic meaning is the colour white, as in 小白兔 [the little white rabbit]. In the Basic Chinese 500 course, children also learn the words 明白 [to understand] and 白天 [day time].

Here is a list of some more common words containing the character 白that children can easily understand:

白菜 bok-choi (Chinese cabbage with green leaves and white stem)
白白 in vain
白吃 eat without paying
蛋白 egg white

For a more comprehensive list of words please click here.


There are also a few common words which are less relevant to children:

白話 (1) Cantonese; (2) vernacular
白手 empty handed, commonly used to describe a self-made person without money being handed down to him/her
白果 ginkgo
白眼 supercilious look, contempt

For a more comprehensive list of these words please click here.

As we can see from the list of words, 白 is a very useful character indeed.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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看圖造句 From image to sentence

最初,寶寶只會說單字。慢慢地,他很自然地會將它們串起來組成詞,然後會說短句。再過一段時間,他的句子慢慢變長。最終,他還能發表一番動人心絃的講話。這是孩子語言的自然發展途徑。

孩子學習寫作的過程也一樣:當他學會了一定數量的單字,就會學習組成詞語,再而造句。要是寫作不是你家孩子的強項,怎麼辦?不要緊,我們可以利用字卡。只要一套閱讀練習卡,保管你的孩子也能輕鬆寫出美麗的句子,譜出動人的文章。

我們為孩子設計了兩個短短的小故事,每個故事分四部分,讓孩子輕鬆起步。參考答案也附在一起了。當然,你應該盡量鼓勵孩子去創造自己的句子和故事。來,我們一起看看活動的方法。

When children have learnt enough words, they naturally string them together and form sentences. Eventually, they will put all the sentences together to form speech. This is the natural development of a child’s language and thoughts.

Writing in Chinese is the same. Once your child has learnt enough characters, they can start to form words and sentences. Is writing not one of your child’s strengths? No worries. We can make use of the Study Cards. With the set of Study Cards, you child will be able to write beautiful sentences and craft stories. 

To help them get started, we have designed two short stories, each containing 4 parts. We have even provided reference answers! But of course, you should always encourage your child to create their own stories. Let’s have a look below.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

這個活動很適合你和孩子交流探討一些和寫作相關的思維:

  • 每個故事的四幅圖畫應該是甚麼順序
  • 孩子對故事有甚麼想法?
  • 教孩子從「何時?何處?何人?甚麼?為甚麼?」(5W) 去理解故事

即使是年幼的孩子,也應該盡量鼓勵他和你談談他的想法。請記得:我們提供的句子只是參考,而不是「答案」。說故事是沒有正確答案的。

由於「一」字並沒有在基礎漢字500課程中獨立教授,所以沒有印製的字卡,我們特別在下載文件中加制了,方便你剪下應用。(下載連結在下面)

這個活動適合已學到躍進級一半的小朋友。參考下載圖中的字卡顏色,就可以簡明地知道每個字出自哪一級,你的孩子是否已學過了。要是碰上有些字孩子還沒學,你可以修改一下用詞,例如:許多>很多 / 送給 > 給/ 半路上 > 路上…,也可以幫他把字挑出來或讀給他聽。

This is a great activity to engage your child in discussions about:

  • The correct order of the 4 images in each story
  • Your child’s thought about the stories
  • “When, where, what, who, why?”

Even very young children should be encouraged to discuss their ideas and thoughts. The sentences provided here only serve as examples and not “answers”.

As “一” was not taught as one of the 500 characters, we have created an additional sheet in the PDF file for you to cut out and use (see below download link).

This game is geared towards children who are about half way through Building Reader and up. Refer to the colour of the Study Cards on the reference sheet to decide whether or not your child is at the right level to play this game. For children who have not yet learnt certain characters, please provide necessary assistance by swapping them (e.g. 很多 instead of 許多), omitting them (e.g. 給 instead of 送給, 路上 instead of 半路上) or simply picking / reading the card for them.

看圖造句 Image to sentence (age 3+歲以上)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具  
  • 一張圖片,或幾將有關連的圖片 (歡迎下載參考圖)
  • 閱讀練習卡一套,你亦可自製字卡
  • 紙、筆 (視乎需要)
  • An image or a series of images (feel free to download our examples)
  • Study Cards, or you can make your own word cards
  • Pen / Pencil / Paper (optional)
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備  

 

  • 下載PDF (文件包含了繁體及簡體版、圖片及額外的「一」字字卡)
  • 要是你想依照我們提供的參考句子玩遊戲,先從各級挑出所需的字卡準備好
  • Download the PDF (contains both traditional and simplified Chinese versions, larger version of the pictures, and the additional character 「一」)
  • If you prefer to follow the sample sentences, pick out the cards from various levels
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法  
  1. 將圖片給孩子看。和孩子一起談談他看了圖以後的各種想法。要是你要用問題去引導他,盡量用開放式的問題。例如:你認為他為甚麼要…? (而不要問:他是不是要做…?)
  2. 請孩子根據他對圖的想法說一句 (或兩三句)話。
  3. 幫孩子一起從字卡中找出他那句話用過的字。
  4. 讓孩子用字卡組成他的句子。
  1. Show your child the image(s). Discuss the image(s) with your child.
  2. Ask your child to say one or more sentences about the image.
  3. Help your child to pick out the cards of the characters used in their sentence(s).
  4. Ask your child to arrange the cards to form their sentence(s).
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化  

視乎孩子的年齡和認讀水平,你可以按以下建議調節遊戲:

  1. 年幼的孩子開始時每次只用一張圖片。
  2. 年長的孩子可以一次用全部四張圖。
  3. 年幼的孩子剛開始時,你可以將PDF圖中的參考句讀給他聽,然後幫他將字卡準備好,由孩子將字卡排成正確的句子。
  4. 孩子稍為可以時,將參考句子(或你自己作的故事句子) 給他看,由孩子用字卡將句子「抄」出來。
  5. 年長的孩子,要是已開始書寫,可以直接將自己的句子寫下來。也可以用寫的和字卡結合。例如:要是不會寫某個字就可以用字卡。
  6. 這個活動可以單一個孩子玩,也可以集體創作。

Depending on your child’s age and progress, you may want to make the following adjustments:

  1. For very young children, start with only one image card.
  2. For older children, use all four cards to tell a story.
  3. For very young children just starting out, you could read them the sentence and pick out the cards. They will then arrange the cards to form the correct sentence.
  4. For younger children, you could show them the reference sentences, and ask them to use the cards to “copy” the sentences.
  5. For older children who can already write, they can also write out the sentences they created. They can also have the choice of combining writing and using the cards (for example, using the cards to help with characters they don’t know how to write).
  6. This activity can be played with one child, or with multiple children as teamwork.

溫提 Additional tips:

可以幫孩子將他造的句抄下來,或是將他排出來的字卡句子用手機拍下來。
You could copy down the sentences that your child has created, or take a photo of each of the sentences that your child made with the cards.

** 我們日後會繼續發表這類造句用的故事圖片。請不時留意BLOG的消息。We will continue to create more images for such sentence forming activity. Please check back regularly.


你和孩子玩過這遊戲後有甚麼反映嗎?我們很期待欣賞孩子玩這遊戲的照片喔。
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員,歡迎你也加入我們。

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We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

老編心得 TIP OF THE WEEK

正如要有健康的體魄就要吃健康的食品,避免junk food;孩子的語文發展也需要多看、多讀、多聽高質素的內容。當你為孩子選圖書時固然會仔細挑選,與此同時在這個階段也應該避免讓他們接觸太口語化或不正規的書寫方式,以免他們產生混淆。

Form a habit of playing some kind of Chinese language games each week.
Playing these games is a way of making the language practical and part of their lives. Children learn to manipulate the characters and words, and thus become actively engaged in the language. This provides additional stimulation compared to passively reading from books.

 

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Vivian’s story – Learn Chinese characters directly

This week’s Parent Spotlight is Vivian Chen. She and her husband are raising two bilingual daughters in London. Her goal was to finish Sagebooks for both her daughters before they started mandatory schooling at 4 years old.

Family Background

I’m Taiwanese. My husband is English. We moved to London 5 years ago.

Children

6 year old daughter: started: 4; finished: 8 months
4 year old daughter: started: ~3.5; finished: 1.5 years


 In her Own Words 

1. Why did you choose Sagebooks?

We chose Sagebooks based on a friend’s recommendation. When my oldest girl was 3, we started to learn Zhuyin Fuhao (bopomofo) but felt we were not progressing fast enough. We decided to start to learn Chinese characters directly instead of the Taiwan transition way (start from zhuyin).

2. What was your experience with going through Sagebooks?

My oldest girl started at 4 and finished in about 8 months. My youngest girl started at 3.5 years old and finished in one and a half years. Because in UK mandatory school start quite early (4 years old) we wanted my oldest to finish Sagebooks before school started. For my youngest kid, we started early. Because she was too young it was a little bit hard to focus sometimes. We took a break some months last summer holiday then resumed again later. Finally it’s finished.

3. What did your typical lesson look like? Did you do additional activities?

We read at least one or two new sections everyday. We also repeated previous sections and used flashcards. After a couple hundred words, we started reading Taiwan primary school text books too, as well as some Chinese poems and 小豆豆學華語 to extend vocabulary and enhance the comprehension.

4. What did you like about Sagebooks? Was there anything you didn't?

Sagebooks has good structure to help kids learn the first 500 words. I like the idea of Treasure Boxes – especially for the first 100, 200 words. It made my kids feel as if they really could read a book. Even though it’s quite short and simple, it was a big achievement for them.

5. If you have more than one child, would you do it again?

Definitely.

6. Any advice for parents who are just starting?

Make this as a routine everyday. Each kid has a different personality.

...

Thank you so much for your responses, Vivian! You set a goal and you made it - twice. Thank you for also including your additional activities you did with your girls. Chinese comprehension helps with the Sagebooks curriculum and your supplemental textbooks and poems were wonderful additions.

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Academic traditions in China

We are now at the time of the year where families begin to gear up and prepare for the new academic year. Whether this is met with enthusiasm or despair in your household, the back to school season is a particularly exciting one.  Children get ready to spend another year educating and cultivating themselves – while of course, making friends and memories in the process.

It goes without saying that all nations have their own traditions and philosophy with regards to education.  Here, we’ll share a few ways Chinese approaches certain milestones in a student’s life, such as the first day of school and graduation.

The first day of school

In modern day China, the first day of school is 1 September, although most schools elect to start on the first Monday of September. Like in most other countries, the first day of school consists of the regular activities: receiving new timetables, meeting new classmates and greeting the teachers.

Early in the past century, a tradition would be for students to bring a few presents to their teachers on the first day. Each student would bring three things: garlic, celery, and green onion.

Why these three items? Well, they were all play on words.

Garlic, is 蒜 (suàn) in Chinese which is the same sound as算, meaning maths.

Green onion, is 蔥 (cōng) in Chinese which is the same sound as 聰 in 聰明, meaning clever or with wit.

Celery, 芹 (qín) in Chinese which is the same sound as 勤, meaning diligent and hard working.

能算、會勤、plus 聰明 were considered the three main “ingredients” to a student’s success. These three gifts serve as a symbolic commitment as well as good fortune for the student throughout the coming school year.

Nowadays, the students are usually addressed by the headmaster and a star pupil, both of whom deliver eloquent speeches about their devotion to their school, gratitude for the teachers, and commitments to ambition and success.

Graduation

Graduation is a momentous occasion for students, parents and teachers alike, as students move on from their current phase of education. At a university graduation ceremony – like in many other nations – students are handed their hard-earned diplomas, and teachers deliver celebratory speeches, congratulating students for their efforts. While most students wear traditional academic, black robes for their graduation, it is also not uncommon for them to wear qipao, Chinese traditional dress.

What is more specific to China, however, is the 謝師宴: the banquet to thank the teachers. This happens usually at high school or university graduations. Here, students all chip in to book a banquet, and invite all the teachers who have taught them throughout the years to attend. Students might prepare a talent show, and deliver a speech to formally thank all the teachers. Teachers would also express their good wishes for the students moving forward.

Although after this banquet, students and teachers are considered equals, since the students are now adults and members of the society, there is this saying: “一日為師,終身為父” in Chinese. It means if someone is your teacher for even a single day, s/he will be like your parent for the rest of your life. Students are forever in the teachers’ debt.

Some study-related Idioms

There are many idioms in Chinese that encapsulate what it means and how it feels to be a student. Here are a couple:

十年寒窗
Literally, this means to study for ten years by a cold window. This idiom illustrates the hardships students are willing to endure and perseverance it takes to get through the long years of study. From this idiom comes the expression 同窗, which means ‘classmate’ or ‘schoolmate’ – someone who also sat by the same cold window with us for those years.
聞雞起舞
This idiom means to start practicing at the sound of the cockerel’s first crow. It describes is the act of self-discipline and being diligent in one’s studies, of being so committed that one would begin practicing and studying at the break of dawn every day.

As you can see from the above image, in each of the above idioms, there is one character that is not included in Basic Chinese 500. (The ones included in the syllabus are shown in proper Study Cards.)

Why not take this opportunity and learn them?

Here, let us show you their proper pinyin and writing sequences (click on image to enlarge):

Pinyin: /hán/
Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese are written in the same way.

Pinyin: /wén/
Traditional Chinese version

Pinyin: /wén/
Simplified Chinese version

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Advanced games to learn emotions

In a previous post, we focused on activities that were more appropriate for younger children or new Chinese learners. This post will focus on a little more advanced Chinese because we will be integrating all the skills we have been using in previous activities such as storytelling, drawing, and writing.

ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

Most of these activities are geared toward older children - but like for our other activities, we can scale them back for younger ones. Just make appropriate adaptations.


Emotion Storytelling (age 5+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Sheets of paper
  • Pen/Pencil
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Prepare different “emotion” cards for your child to use as a prompt
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Offer your child three prompts from which to choose. Have them tell or write a short story that features the emotion they choose.
  2. If there are multiple children, you can have the children agree on which emotion to choose. Then, have each child tell one line of the story and continue around the room until the story is done.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on your child’s age, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by taking the following steps:

  1. To make it easier, you can have your child tell you the story or draw a picture instead of writing it.
  2. To make it easier, you can have the story be shorter instead of longer.
  3. To make it more difficult, you can ask your child to incorporate more than one emotion.
  4. To make it more difficult, you can use more complex emotions like disgust, loneliness, jealousy, etc.

Emotion Story Drawing (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Sheets of paper
  • Pen/Pencil
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • Prepare different “emotion” cards for your child to use as a prompt
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Offer your child three prompts from which to choose. Have them draw a picture of a time when they felt a particular emotion.
  2. After they draw the picture, have your child describe the picture and scenario to you.

 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on your child’s age, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by taking the following steps:

  1. To make the activity easier, your child doesn’t have to describe the picture to you.
  2. To make the activity harder, you can ask your child to draw a comic style picture instead of just one picture. (Please refer to one of our previous post on comics-related activities to draw inspirations)
  3. To make the activity harder, you can ask your child to incorporate more than one emotion in the picture. Have there been times when they felt more than one emotion at a time?

Emotion Idiom Matching Activity (age 5+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Sheets of paper
  • Pen/Pencil
 HOW TO PREPARE 事前準備 
  • You can draw different images to represent feelings, or just regular faces on cards.
  • If you are stuck, there is a wide range of readily available emojis that you can use as a source of inspiration.
  • Write Chinese idioms that match the emojis. For your reference, you can look at our previous article about EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE.
  • Please feel free to download a reference sheet of some common Chinese idioms on emotions.

       

DOWNLOAD SHEETS 下載練習紙
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Mix up the Idiom/Phrase cards and give a set of the emoji cards to each child playing.
  2. Flip over an idiom/phrase card. See who can choose the matching emoji card first. Whoever is fastest gets the point.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 

Depending on your child’s age, you can increase or decrease the difficulty level of the activity by taking the following steps:

  • To make the activity easier, the children don’t have to compete against each other.
  • To make the activity harder, you can include more cards.
  • To make the activity harder, you can have your child do the “opposite” emotions instead.
  • If your children vary in ages, you can give handicaps to the older children. For example, every TWO cards counts as one point.

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK

Keep the target in mind.

With regards to Chinese fluency and literacy, what is your ultimate goal? Why is that important to you? If you keep these reasons at the forefront of your mind, it will be easier to persist when things are hard or your schedule makes working on Chinese a hassle.

Also, remember that you’re allowed to change your mind. Your goals can change depending on your family situation. Give yourself grace to adapt and adjust – whether it is de-emphasizing Chinese or increasing time spent on Chinese. There is plenty of time.

很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。

加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】

期待與你在群組內會面~

 

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