反義詞字卡遊戲 Antonym card game

學習反義詞,一來可以增加孩子的詞彙量,二來可以加強孩子對詞彙的理解和運用,三來還可以增進孩子的認知概念發展。

基礎漢字500從第一級開始,每級都教授很多反義詞。這次從中抽選了一些反義詞,供家長和教師免費下載,透過遊戲的形式,讓孩子學習。

家長可以利用同樣的方法,在這個遊戲基礎上增加更多的反義詞練習。

這個字卡遊戲其中一個優點是:家長只需印制一次,就可以多次重複溫習,而且靈活性高,可以因應孩子不停的進步而調節玩法和難度。

準備 Setting up

 道具 WHAT YOU NEED 

下載PDF,列印字卡,剪下備用。(下載連結在遊戲說明之後)

50張字卡合共50個詞,即25對反義詞。為了方便家長和孩子,每級的反義詞字卡都採用了同級的顏色供參考。

以下是這些詞組的級別參考:

啟蒙級 天 / 地

上 / 下

來 / 去

是 / 不

大 / 小

萌芽級 進 / 出

西 / 東

早 / 晚

方 / 圓

前 / 後

躍進級 空 / 滿

以前 / 以後

和氣 / 生氣

愛 / 怕

聽 / 說

信心級 好 / 壞

眼前 / 遠方

先進 / 落後

自己 / 別人

雪白 / 烏黑

實力級 安全 / 危險

睡着 / 醒來

打開 / 關上

傷心 / 開心

離 / 合

 

反義詞配對遊戲

 玩法#1 HOW TO PLAY #1 

1. 按孩子的學習進度,選定合用的反義詞。
2. 將3-5個不相關的詞排列在孩子面前。較為年長的孩子可以多加幾個。
3. 將相關的反義詞,交給孩子。 * 如要增加難度,可另加1-2張不相關的詞語。
4. 由孩子選出正確的反義詞,逐一配上。
5. 可以重複,用另一堆反義詞組再玩。

 玩法#2 HOW TO PLAY #2 

1. 按孩子的學習進度,選定合用的反義詞。例如:6組,共12張字卡。
2. 將字卡全部排放在孩子面前。可以整齊地陣列,也可以不規則地排。
3. 由孩子選出正確的反義詞,一對一對選出來,放在一旁。
4. 可以重複,用另一堆反義詞組再玩。

* 如要增加難度,可另加2張不相關、不能組成反義詞的詞語。
* 年長的孩子可以增加字卡數目。
* 也可以幾名孩子輪流玩。

下載繁體版反義詞字卡
DOWNLOAD ANTONYME CARDS (Traditional Chinese)

下载简体版反义词字卡
DOWNLOAD ANTONYME CARDS (Simplified Chinese)


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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漢字拼圖 More word puzzles

春風自家教系列中有個漢字砌圖遊戲

這次,我們為你送上每級四個漢字,只要下載、列印、沿線剪下就立即可以和孩子玩了。

 

不同級別,不同玩法和難度。

你還可以參照這些砌圖的做法,自己再做另一批字,或是針對孩子學習所需,讓孩子多玩多練習。

下載連結在下面。

玩法參考

沿着分割線,將每個字剪開。

若孩子年紀小,你為他減低難度,可以將字基本砌好,留些空間,讓孩子動手將它們拼合起來。

對於能力高的孩子,不妨將兩三個字混在一起做。

 

 


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

我是小老師 Spot the mistakes

孩子都喜歡玩 role play 吧?這是一個教育專家一致推薦的教學方法,用途廣泛。

這次讓孩子來當老師,為我們改卷吧。有沒有發現,不管是大人或是小孩,要指出別人的錯處時,眼睛總會特別的利?所以,當我們讓孩子來挑我們的錯處,他們肯定就會打起精神,認真又負責地工作了。

玩法參考

根據孩子的年齡和能力,你可以抄寫幾個字、幾組詞語、幾個句子。當中故意加入一些錯誤,例如:

  1. 故意將某一個字寫錯。
  2. 故意將兩個字倒過來寫。
  3. 故意寫漏一個字。
  4. 故意多寫一個字。

以上的錯誤,每次歸類用一種。下面是一些參考做法,請家長看了之後,自己抄寫到紙上。

由家長自己抄寫,能讓活動生活化、人性化,孩子沒有抗拒感。同時,當孩子看見父母執筆書寫,對他們練習寫字也是一種鼓勵。

1. 故意將某個字寫錯 示範

寫五個句子,每句寫錯一個字:

句子示範 寫錯方法
小花貓在草地上。 草字漏一橫 / 草字寫成花字
今天天晴,沒有下雨。 晴字寫作睛字 / 天字寫作大字
從前,有個小姑娘和外婆一起住。 姑字寫成故字 / 住字寫成佳字
媽媽帶我出去買東西。 西字多加一橫 / 我字少一點

以上是參考。家長針對孩子的個別情況,可以有層出不窮的「錯」法。

可以從每次一句話開始,最多不要超過五句、每句只有一個錯處就足夠。

年紀小的孩子可以從單字開始:寫 3-5 個字,其中有一個是錯的。

 

2. 故意將兩個字倒寫 示範

寫五個句子,每句有兩個字倒寫:

句子示範 寫錯方法
今天下雨,大家都不出去。 今天下雨,大都家不出去。
你喜歡聽他說故事嗎? 你喜歡聽說他故事嗎?
穿着黃色的毛衣真好看。 着穿黃色的毛衣真好看。
我跑得快,可是哥哥跑得更快。 我跑得快,可是哥哥跑更得快。

以上是參考。用的都是基礎漢字500課程之內的字。倒寫的部份是參考,家長可以將其他字倒寫。

當孩子熟練了,可以將分隔的兩個字對調。例如:

你穿黃色的毛衣真好。 >>  你穿黃色的毛衣真好

 

3. 故意寫漏一個字 示範

寫五個句子,每句漏掉一個字:

句子示範 寫錯方法
沒想到他的力氣那麼大。 沒想到他的力氣[ ]麼大。
站得那麼高有點危險。 站得那麼高[ ]點危險。
小狗不能進公園。 小狗不能進[ ]園。
吃東西前要先洗手。 吃東[ ]前要先洗手。

以上是參考。用的都是基礎漢字500課程之內的字。漏寫的部份是參考,家長可以將其他字漏掉。

 這個活動請注意避免以下的情況 

有時候,有些字漏寫也可以,既不影響意思,也不影響文句的正確與否。例如:

這裏沒有人。/ 這裏沒人。

兩句話都對,意思也一樣。

也有些情況,漏寫了一個字,雖然文句還是正確,但意思就變了。例如:

小狗能追小貓。/ 小狗能追小貓。

兩句話都對,可是意思就不一樣了。

 

4. 故意多寫一個字 示範

寫五個句子,每句多寫一個字:

句子示範 寫錯方法
我天天跳,就能長得快。 我天天跳,就能長得快。
早上的空氣真好。 早上的空氣真好。
這張照片裏有三個人。 這張照片裏有三個人。
夏天的西瓜真好吃。 夏天的西瓜真好吃。

以上參考用的都是基礎漢字500課程之內的字。家長還可以根據孩子的情況用其他的句子做練習。

你用了哪些句子和孩子做練習呢?歡迎到我們的Facebook群組裏和大家分享,讓我們一起互相出主意,為孩子創作更多的練習。

 


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

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很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

Many parents are already part of our Facebook Group. If you’d like to take advantage of the collective wisdom of your fellow parents, please join us.
JOIN SUPPORT GROUP (English)
We’d love to hear from you.

 

口頭寫讀 Practice writing – orally

喜愛文學的人可能聽過這麼一幅對聯:

上聯:此木為柴山山出

下聯:因火成烟夕夕多

這是古來文人最愛的文字遊戲,是一幅拆字聯。

上聯的「」+「」合成一個「」字,「」+「」又成為「」字。
下聯的「」+「」是「」字,兩個「」字上下重疊是「」字。

古時煮飯燒柴,自然每天傍晚家家戶戶都放出烟。這幅對聯不但文字工整,意境也美麗樸實。

漢字特色:拆字解讀

中文字由部件組成,「拆字」向來可以用來做遊戲,也有不少人用來作風水看相講運數。其實,你也同樣可以用拆字來和孩子做寫讀認字的遊戲,不但有趣,還能幫助孩子掌握對漢字部件和結構佈局的規格的掌握,對日後默書寫字肯定有幫助。

以下從基礎漢字500課程中舉一些例子。

  • 單立人 (企人邊),旁邊一個「也」字。 >>「他」
  • 木字旁,另一邊上面一個大字,下面一個可字。 >>「椅」

(上面的例子能讓孩子注意到,單立人和木字旁一定在左邊)。

基礎漢字500 逐級舉列

 啟蒙級 

漢字 拆字方法
日字旁邊一個月
大字上面加一橫
女字旁,一個馬字
兩個月字平排放

 萌芽級 

漢字 拆字方法
豎心旁,一個白字
三點水,旁邊一個可字
上面是日,下面是生字
門裏加個口

最後這個「問」字有一個相關的故事:

在三國時期,有一天,曹操去視察一道新造的門。他看了以後,提筆在門上寫了個「活」字就走了。
大家都摸不着頭腦,猜不透他的心意。
曹操手下的一名才子楊修看見後就說:「門內添活字,字也。」
原來曹操是嫌門太闊了。

孩子學會了拆字,也就像楊修一樣聰明喔。

 躍進級 

漢字 拆字方法
一隻蟲,住在兩堆土的方邊
很重,又很有力氣
日字上面有禾
青字,加個目字旁

 信心級 

漢字 拆字方法
單立人,旁邊一頭牛
白字,加個單立人。
(萌芽級學了「怕」字,孩子聯想到兩個字之間的同異之處嗎?)
古字,旁邊一個反文旁;也可以說成: 反文旁,另一旁是上十下口*
兩個一樣的木字**

* 孩子從這個字會留意到「反文旁」。課程中其他反文旁的字有:放、救。

** 姓「林」的人被人問到自己的姓名時,經常都會說「雙木林」來說明自己的姓。

 實力級 

漢字 拆字方法
大字騎在可字上面
兩個不一樣的「mù」字平排放*
小字多了一撇
有人吃了一口

* 孩子能想到些甚麼「mù」字呢?這個字和「雙木林」又不一樣呢。

說起「合」字,還有一個關於曹操和楊修的故事:

有一天,曹操看見有一盒酥餅,就拿起筆在盒上寫了「一合酥」,放着就走了。(當時的「合」字就是現在用的「盒」字。)
楊修看見了,說:「啊,丞相指示:『一人一口酥』。大家分吃了吧。」
大家就把餅分掉了。

咳咳... 有後話:楊修雖然聰明,可是他不懂藏斂,曹操嫌他太過聰明賣弄,就不高興了。

拆字認讀 遊戲方法

1. 選大約20個字,寫在裁好大小的字卡上 (逐一點撃下圖,下載例子。沿虛線將每將A4剪開8張字卡)。

 
2. 隨機排3張字卡,字面向上,孩子可以清楚看見每個字。
3. 由你選定那3個字中的其中一個字,把結構寫法說出來。
4. 孩子挑選正確的字。正確選中的話,那張字卡歸孩子。
5. 重新隨機再排3張字卡,這次由孩子說出寫法,你來選。
6. 你和孩子輪流玩,孩子就能從認讀和拆字兩種不同的角度加深對生字的熟習程度。

 其他玩法 

1. 幾名孩子一起玩的話,全部由你來說結構寫法,每個孩子輪流認字挑選。最後取得最多字卡的勝出。
2. 將孩子已認熟的字和他記不牢或容易混淆的字合在一起玩,就可以既能練習又減少挫敗感。
3. 較為年長,已能寫字的孩子,可以將字默寫或抄下來。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

更多教養支援 SUPPORT FOR YOU
很多家長都已是我們 Facebook 群組【講媽 · 講爸園地】 的成員。歡迎你也加入我們,一起互相鼓勵和支持,共同為孩子的學習而努力。
加入【講媽 · 講爸園地】(中文)

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We’d love to hear from you.

 

進階級的成語學習 Higher level Chinese idioms

學習成語最好、最輕鬆的方法是日積月累 (比方說現在馬上把「日積月累」這個成語記下來)。

這次,我們挑選了十個成語,都是在基礎漢字500課程以內的字,已經會握筆抄寫的小朋友還可以做練習。在自己已掌握能認讀的基礎上學習這些成語,也能容易將它們派上用場。

這組成語用了信心級和實力級的字,對達到進階級的小朋友來說會學得更輕鬆,又有新意。

趁着放暑假,可以逐步跟着以下的提示做不同的反覆練習,保管小朋友很快就學會了。

練習方式 HOW TO PRACTICE

  1. 先將下面的列表中的十個成語教孩子讀幾遍。每次3-4個,逐一將意義向孩子解釋清楚。
  2. 利用閱讀練習卡,讓孩子做各種認讀、挑選、排列等練習。
  3. 當孩子都基本上熟練了,下載填充練習紙 (連結在下面)。
    P1-2 每個成語填一個字。P3-4難度增加:每個成語填兩個字。十個相同的成語,就能得到反覆練習。
       
  4. 當孩子都掌握了,讓孩子將每個成語造成一句,寫下來。不會寫的地方由家長幫他寫。

日後有空不時翻開來複習,孩子就徹底地學會了。

 

十個進階成語

成語拼音 PinyinExplanation in English
愛人如己ài rén rú jǐTo love others as you love yourself
風雲人物fēng yún rén wùInfluential figure / the man/woman of the moment
一見如故yī jiàn rú gùFamiliarity at first sight
風吹雨打fēng chuī yǔ dǎWindswept and battered by rain / to undergo hardship
一日三秋yī rì sān qiūA single day apart feels like three years
三五成群sān wǔ chéng qúnIn groups of three or five
汗如雨下hàn rú yǔ xiàTo sweat like a pig (sweating like raining)
明知故問míng zhī gù wènTo ask a question while knowing the answer
日長夜短rì cháng yè duǎnLong days and short nights
為人師表wéi rén shī biǎoTo be a worthy teacher
下載繁體版 Traditional Chinese version 下载简体版 Simplified Chinese version

 

造句示範

下面讓我們來利用學會的成語寫些句子吧。

夏天到了, 日長夜短 。放假的時候,小朋友們都 三五成群 地到海邊去。大熱天氣,大家 一見如故 ,一起玩得 汗如雨下 ,也拍下了好多歡樂的埸面。


哪個 風雲人物 不是經過長期的 風吹雨打 ,才能得到最後的成功呢?


叔叔 為人師表 ,工作認真,又事事做到 愛人如己 ,我長大也要學他一樣。

以上用的字,全部都在基礎漢字500課程以內的喔。

小朋友也來寫下自己的句子吧。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

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詞彙學習 The etymology and usage of [打]

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。


「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

其他組詞 Vocabulary study


躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:


打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

 啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER 

打人 to hit someone
打下 to shoot down
打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
打鳥 to shoot a bird
打手 a hired thug
打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
打開 to open
打天下 to seize power
打草 to make a draft
打家 (劫舍) to rob

 萌芽級 BUDDING READER 

打中 to hit a target
打風 To experience a typhoon
打氣 to cheer
打魚 to fish
打比方 to give an analogy
打火 to light a fire
(打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
打住 to stop, to halt
打點 to get ready, to put things in order
打坐 to meditate
打聽 to ask around, to enquire
打耳光 to slap
打不過 To be unable to beat
打從 ever since

 躍進級 BEGINNING READER 

打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
打更 to sound the night watch
打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
打洞 to punch a hole
打動 to move emotionally
打嘴巴 to slap

 信心級 BEGINNING READER 

打電話 to make a phone call
打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
打傘 to hold up an umbrella
打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
打字 to type
打字機 a typewriter
打分 to grade or mark
打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
打傷 to injure

 實力級 BEGINNING READER 

打球 to play ball
打遊戲機 to play video game
打掃 to clean up
打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
打滾 to roll about
打結 to tie a knot
打破 to break, to smash
打圓場 to smooth things over

 成語 idioms 

打成一片 to integrate
打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
打發時間 to kill time
打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.


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This is interesting!

How would you say “This is interesting!” in Chinese?
「這個很有趣!」… No, no!

In most cases, we would rather say:

「(這)有意思!」

意思 /yì si/ is a very frequently used word. The most basic meaning of 意思 is “meaning”. Such as:

  • 你這是甚麼意思? What do you mean by that?
  • 這是甚麼意思? What does this mean?

The word 意思 can also be used in many other situations. Some common examples might surprise you.

Excuse me! (Please let me pass.) 不好意思。(請讓一讓。)
Sorry (that I’m busy right now. / that I’m late.) 不好意思 (我現在沒空。 / 我來晚了。)
He fancies her! 他對她有意思。
He is not interested in her. 他對她沒有意思。
Are you shameless! 你還好意思!
It’s so embarrassing! 太不好意思了!
I want to go to the beach this weekend. What do you think? 這個周未我想去海灘。你的意思呢?
This is for you. I hope you like it. (When you give someone a present.) 小小意思,不成敬意。
If you insist (accepting a present or an offer). 那我就不好意思了。
This is so boring / pointless / such a waste of effort! 真沒意思!
That’s OK. (when someone thanked you or apologise to you) 小意思。
This is nothing! (when boasting one’s own skills) 小意思!
This is very meaningful. 這事很有意思。
This is thought provoking. (a speech, a writing, etc) (你的話 / 你說得 / 文章寫得) 很有意思。
It’s about to rain. 天有要下雨的意思。

When two 意思 are put together

疊詞 (die-ci, replication – when a same character is used twice in a word) is a distinctive characteristic of Chinese. The word 意思 can also be used as a die-ci. The expression 意思意思 can mean “just a little something” “a gesture”. For example:

  • There is no need to give something expensive. It’s the thought that counts. 不必送貴重的東西,意思意思就好。
  • It’s just a formality. 就意思意思。

In summary, the word 意思 carries the following meanings:

意思
  1. meaning (noun)
  2. an opinion, a wish (noun)
  3. the thought or good wishes carried by a present (noun)
  4. to express a thought or an emotion (verb)
  5. an indication, a tendency (noun)
  6. interest, fun (noun)

How  would you interpret each of the 意思 below?

Below is the adaptation of a very popular joke, reflecting the multiple meanings of 意思, and subtlety in Chinese style. Are you able to understand what each of the 意思 mean in the dialogue below?

A staff presents a gift to the CEO.

CEO: 你這是甚麼意思?
Staff: 沒甚麼意思。就意思意思。
CEO: 你這就不夠意思了。
Staff: 小意思,小意思。
CEO: 你這人真有意思。
Staff: 其實也沒有別的意思。
CEO: 那我就不好意思了。
Staff: 是我不好意思。

Here is a loose translation of the conversation:

CEO: What do you mean by this?
Staff: Nothing. Just a little something.
CEO: How very “cunning” of you.
Staff: It’s really nothing. Nothing at all.
CEO: You are very interesting.
Staff: I really don’t have any other intentions.
CEO: Then I’ll say “Thank you”.
Staff: The pleasure is all mine.


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漢語中的比較詞 Let’s compare

對英語文法稍有認識的人,都會知道英語的 comparative 和 superlative 的詞彙和法則 (一般來說是形容詞/副詞加 er 或 est,或在前面加上 more 或 the most)。

中文有這類比較詞嗎?

當然有。

最顯淺、直接的方法,可以和英語文法對照的,是在形容詞/副詞前面加上「更」或「最」。

When we make comparisons in English, we use comparatives and superlatives.
The equivalents in Chinese is to add 更 or 最 respectively, such as the examples below.

  • 哥哥跳得高,學長跳得高,體育老師跳得高。
  • 面包好吃,餃子好吃,蔥油餅好吃!
  • 走路的時候要小心,走梯級的時候要小心,天雨過馬路的時候要小心!

英語的 superlative 有時會用完全不同的字來表達。例如,雖然 the best 是 good 的最高層次,但 wonderful 或 excellent 就明顯地更優越了。

中文也一樣:真正能表達各種不同程度的方法並不在於單純地加上「更」或「最」,而是選用完全不同的詞。下面的例子就能說明準確的用詞怎樣能確切地表達意思,同時令文章更生動傳神。

Apart from the use of 更 or 最, there are many other adjectives and adverbs in Chinese that express different levels or intensity of a description. This is quite similar to the use of "wonderful" or "excellent" other than "the best" in English.
Below are some examples.

基本詞 升級 厲害
快樂 歡天喜地 歡騰
哭 (淚汪汪) 淚如雨下 呼天搶地
美麗 嬌艷 國色天香
進步 循序漸進 突飛猛進
幫忙 成全 雪中送炭
努力 全力 極力
退步 惡化 一落千丈
比不上 黯然失色 望塵莫及
一樣 半斤八兩 棋逢敵手
相對立 格格不入 水火不容
困難 好不容易 艱巨
難過 悲哀 傷心欲絕
稱讚 嘉許 拍案叫絕
取笑 嘲笑 恥笑
批評 指責 評擊
藥到病除 妙手回春 起死回生
一眼關七 一目十行 一覽無遺

從詞到句 On the sentence level

要比較數量、程度等,我們還可以用比較句去表達。當兩件事物不一樣時,我們通常會用「比」字來表達。

Apart from words, there are also comparative sentence structures in Chinese. In most cases, the word 比 is used.

  • 哥哥我大兩歲。
  • 昨天的雨下得今天大。

用「比」字的時候,要是兩種相比的事物都已達到一定的水平,可以加用「更」、「再」、「還」突出情況來。

When the two objects or actions being compared are of a similar level, we use 更 / 再 / 還 to emphasise the superiority of one of them.

單用「比」 「比」+ 「更」/「再」/「還」
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的不好看。)
紅色的比藍色的好看。
(藍色的也好看。)
我吃得比你多。
(你吃得不多。)
我吃得比你多。
(你也吃很多。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他可能來得不晚,可是其他人都比他早。)
沒有人比他來得晚了。
(他來得很晚,而且最晚。)

上面的是「增值」的例子,強調前面的事物的程度比後面的事物要高、要強。如果我們要從相反角度去說,就會用「沒有」/「不如」。一般我們還會在形容詞/副詞前面加上「那麼」。

While 比 is used in affirmative sentences, 沒有 / 不如 is used in negative statements. In these cases, the word 那麼 is often used in conjunction.

  • 藍色的沒有紅色的那麼好看。/  藍色的不如紅色的那麼好看。
  • 沒有我吃得那麼多。/  你不如我吃得那麼多。
  • 其他人沒有他來得那麼晚。/  其他人不如他來得那麼晚。

以上我們探討了漢語中利用字詞和句式兩個層面的比較方法。

上面列出的比較詞詞例雖然只是漢語詞彙庫的冰山一角,但已能讓我們感受到詞彙的力量:豐富的詞彙量能讓我們貼切地表達不同程度的描述,同時增加文章的色彩。對現時在求學階段的孩子來說,增加詞彙量不但有助他們的智力發展,更能幫助他們充分地表達自己人思想和意見。對我們成年人來說,豐富的詞彙量也同樣有利於職場競爭力和人際關係。要增加詞彙量,最好方法是閱讀、閱讀、再閱讀優質的文章,另外少不了的是多寫、多練。

當然,有研究指出,「詞彙量大的學生並不一定能寫出高質量的作文」。是否能寫出漂亮的文章還取決於寫作策略和其他相關的能力,而思展部落格的文章一直不斷從多方面探討多寫多練和如何養成這些能力的方法。歡迎大家多參閱我們的各類文章。


我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

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If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

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Games to learn the character 去

Last week we discussed the various meanings of 去 and how it is used. This week, we will use some activities to help children get familiar with this word.

本週遊戲 ACTIVITIES OF THE WEEK

These games should be played after your child has learnt the character 去 from the Basic Chinese 500 book (Beginning Reader, book 2, lesson 11).

I want to... (age 3+, single or multiple players)

 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 (from Beginning Reader) + 2 more study cards (the 2 cards can be random but should both be from Beginning Reader) (or make your own word cards)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay the 3 study cards in front of your child. Ask your child to point out 去. (If they get it wrong, simply point out the correct one to them)
  2. Lay the location and the activity images in front of the child.
  3. Tell your child that you want to go to a place, or to do something (e.g. to the park: 我要去公園。/ to go fishing: 我要去釣魚。)
  4. Ask your child to put the card 去 on top of the correct image card. If they have done correctly, they can keep the image card.
  5. Mix up the 3 study cards again, shuffle their places and lay them out in front of your child.
  6. Repeat the game, until all the images have been used up.
 ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO PLAY 玩法變化 
  1. If you child is very young or is just starting out, focus only on the locations first, and then the activities.
  2. You could also ask your child to choose where they want to go, by asking them: 你要去哪裏? or what they want to do: 你要去做甚麼?
  3. Encourage them to say out the sentence of where they are going or what they are going to do.
  4. Multiple children can take turns to play this game together.

Pushing 去 around (age 3+)

This game should be played after the first game above. You could use the same set of image cards as above.

 WHAT THE CHILD LEARNS 學到甚麼 
  • When speaking, 去 can also be placed after an action, but not after a location, as demonstrated below.
    我去買東西。 =我買東西去。
    我去書店。 (but NOT *我書店去。)
 WHAT YOU NEED 道具 
  • Study Cards : 去 and我. You could also add the optional 要 (all of these are from Beginning Reader)
  • Several images of locations, such as shops, beach, park, restrooms, restaurants, etc.
  • Several images of activities, such as washing hands, having meals, getting on a train, shopping, reading, etc.
 HOW TO PLAY 玩法 
  1. Lay out the cards 我(要)去. Ask your child to read out these characters.
  2. Pick a location or an action and place it after 去.
  3. Ask your child to say the whole sentence, including the image or the action.
  4. Place the 去 card after the image card and ask your child to say the whole sentence according to the new order. Does it sound right?
  5. Repeat the game until all the image cards have run out.
  6. After playing enough times, your child will have a feeling of the rule of where 去 should be placed.
  7. You could use new image cards from time to time, to add interest and keep your child engaged.

Reading practice (age 4.5+)

Now let's put what we have learnt together and do some reading. The sentences below focus on the 8 words below, 4 of them with 去 at the end, and 4 at the beginning of each word:

過去 / 回去/ 下去 / 離去

去年 / 去向 / 去掉 / 去皮

Children who are studying Building Reader or above should be able to read all of the sentences below on their own.

4 words with 去 at the end

  1. 過去我不會唱歌,現在會了。
  2. 天黑了,公園裏的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小貓從樹上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火車帶着老師,慢慢地離去了。

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 过去我不会唱歌,现在会了。
  2. 天黑了,公园里的小朋友都回去了。
  3. 小猫从树上跳下去追老鼠。
  4. 我看着火车带着老师,慢慢地离去了。

4 words with 去 at the beginning

  1. 今年我長得比去年高了。
  2. 小鳥飛得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一點,就變成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的時候會去皮嗎?

Simplified Chinese:

  1. 今年我长得比去年高了。
  2. 小鸟飞得很快,一下子就不知去向了。
  3. 「太」字去掉一点,就变成「大」字了。
  4. 你吃梨的时候会去皮吗?

We would love to hear your comments and see pictures of your kids doing the activities. Make sure you join our Sagebooks HK Parent Support Facebook Group and share with us!

TIP OF THE WEEK 老編心得

Add variety to promote learning.
Children learn in different ways. They don’t only learn through visual, or audio, or a single way. Rather, each channel creates a different imprint in the brain and together they form the child’s overall knowledge. When we engage children in various activities to learn one concept, those experiences enhance each other and leave a much deeper impression. Let children touch, move, listen, read, watch… and enriched learning will happen.

我們會經常為大家探討漢字和語文的課題。
要是你有特別的相關課題希望我們探討,歡迎您告訴我們。

We discuss Chinese language and culture related topics on a regular basis.
If you would like us to discuss certain topics about Chinese, please let us know.

我想提問 I have a request

去 – more than the opposite of 來

In a previous post, we looked at the character 來. In this post, we will take a look at its opposite: 去.

ancient writing

The ancient writing of 去 is a person on top of a cave (his home), meaning someone leaving where he is living (the house, or the homeland). The shape evolved and become the present day 去.

Han dynasty writing

The radical of 去 is 厶, which is counted as 2 strokes. 去 has a total of 5 strokes.

Basic meaning of 去

The most basic meaning of 去 is “to, to go”.

去 can be a one word sentence on its own: 「去!」which is giving an order for someone to go (away, forward, …).
Some common uses of 去 are:

  • 去 + place >> 我去學校。 (I go to school.)
  • 去 + action >> 我去買東西。(I go shopping.)

* all of the examples quoted in this post are characters taught in the Sage Formula curriculum, unless otherwise specified.


Examples of words containing 去

As with many other characters, 去 can combine with other characters to form new words. Some of these words have very little to do with its original meanings. In general, it signifies the removal or reduction of something. It can be a verb, or an adverb. Below are some examples:

去 as a verb:

  • 去掉 – to remove, to eliminate
  • 去世 – to pass away
  • 去皮 – to peel
  • 失去 – to lose
  • 抺去 – to erase
  • 除去 – to eliminate
  • 離去 – to leave
  • 一去不回 – gone forever

去 as an adverb:

  • 去年 – last year
  • 去向 – whereabouts
  • 去路 – outlet, the path one is following
  • 比下去 – to be superior to
  • 不知去向 – gone missing

過去 and 下去 are two very commonly used words. We will take a closer look at these two below.

過去

There are 3 distinct meanings and usages of this word.

Meaning 1:

"in the past".

Meaning 2:

It can be used together with other verbs to show the direction of the action, such as:

    • 過去 - to go over
    • 走過去 - to walk over
    • 跑過去 - to run over
    • 看過去 - to look over
    • 打過去 - to hit over
    • 踢過去 - to kick over
    • … etc
Meaning 3:

"Passable". Take a look at the examples below:

    • 說得過去 - acceptable (of an excuse or explanation)
    • 說不過去 - inexcusable
    • 過得去 - not too bad
    • 過不去 - to make it difficult for someone, unable to make it through

Pay attention to the use of 不 and 得 in the second pair of examples, as they are not opposites.

下去

While this word can simply mean “to go down”, it also means to carry on doing something, depending on the verb it pairs with, such as:

  • 說下去  to continue to tell
  • 看下去  to continue to watch
  • 聽下去  to continue to listen
  • 寫下去  to continue to write
  • 讀下去  to continue to read
  • 做下去  to continue to do

In the following situations, the words can have either meaning, to show direction or to show continuity, depending on the context:

  • 走下去
  • 爬下去
  • 吃下去

去 and 來

In general, 去 and 來 are considered opposites. They tell of the different location of the speaker in relation to the object, much like “come” and “go”, or “here” and “there”.

上去 go up / 上來 come up
下去 go down / 下來 come down
出去 / 出來
回去 / 回來
帶去 / 帶來
進去 / 進來
送去 / 送來
過去 / 過來

去 and 來 can be used in the same word (or idiom). The most straightforward meaning of this kind of words is to show direction of movements. Let’s look at some examples:

  • 跑來跑去 to run about
  • 飛來飛去 to fly about

Many other action words that involve movements that cause a change in location can be used in the same fashion, such as:

  • 踢 (to kick)
  • 轉 (to turn)
  • 走 (to walk)

In some cases where the verb do not involve movements in location, it gives a sense of back and forth, or in many directions:

說來說去 – all the talks on a subject
看來看去 – examining something from various points
想來想去 – to give all considerations on something
推來推去 – to push and pull others (being rude), everybody trying to evade responsibility and push it to others
眉來眼去 – to exchange flirting looks

It can also be used as an adjective, such as 直來直去, describing someone being very direct and straightforward.

An adjective worth learning is the idiom 死去活來. This idiom gives a very vivid picture when used with the following verbs:

得死去活來 – to be madly in love
得死去活來 – to cry one’s heart out
得死去活來 – to be in excruciating pain
得死去活來 – to be boiling mad
Some exceptional cases

In some cases (such as with the verbs 看 /聽 /吃 /穿), the meaning doesn’t change whether you use 去 or 來:

看上去 / 看起來 – it appears to be
聽上去 / 聽起來 – it sounds like
吃上去 / 吃起來 – when one tastes it
穿上去 / 穿起來 – when one wears it

去 is taught in Book 2 of Beginning Reader, one of the very first words that your child learns. As they learn more characters, they start to learn about different combinations of the characters to build new words.
The best way to expand their vocabulary is to build upon what they have already learnt.
In our coming post, we will share with you some games and activities that you can do at home to expand your child's vocabulary based on 去.

Stay tuned.