詞彙學習 The etymology and usage of [打]

The basic meaning of 打

「打」/ dǎ/ 是一個十分常用的字。這是一個形聲字,由於起初的字義是用手擊打,因此屬於手部。說起來,和其他很多象形字相比,它的歷史比較短,文字學家普遍認為是東漢 (公元25-220年) 中末期開始形成、使用的,只有不足2000年的歷史。

隨着時間和社會的變化,「打」的字義和用法、讀音也自然經歷了變化,不但從原來的擊打意思延伸出提起、除去、玩耍等動詞的意思,還受到英語的影響多了量詞的功能:一打 /dá/= 1 dozen (12個)。


「打」/ dǎ/ is a very frequently used character. It is made up of the bushou (radical) part on the left, and the sound part on its right. Its original meaning is “to hit”, and thus it has the hand (手) bushou. Compared to many other ideographic characters it has a relatively shorter history of nearly 2000 years. Scholars generally agreed that it was created around the middle to the end period of East Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

The meaning, usage and pronunciation of 打 has undergone some changes since the word originally appeared. On top of “to hit”, it now also means to fetch, to cancel, to play, and many more depending what other character(s) it is paired up with. Most of these words are verbs. Furthermore, from the influence of English, 打 is also used as a classifier, as in  一打 /dá/ = 1 dozen [note the change in intonation].

其他組詞 Vocabulary study


躍進級 第二冊 第8課 Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8

「打」字組成的詞語、成語、諺語、常用語很多。單就基礎漢字500課程中每級可以組成的詞語就不少。以下是一個孩子可以理解的、粗略的列表:


打 can team up with many other characters to form words, idioms and expressions. In every level of the Basic Chinese 500, there are many such words. Below is a non-exhaustive list of these words which are more related to children:

 啟蒙級 BEGINNING READER 

打人 to hit someone
打下 to shoot down
打水 to fetch water (from a well, a river)
打鳥 to shoot a bird
打手 a hired thug
打起 (精神/訊號) to pull (oneself) together / to put up a signal
打開 to open
打天下 to seize power
打草 to make a draft
打家 (劫舍) to rob

 萌芽級 BUDDING READER 

打中 to hit a target
打風 To experience a typhoon
打氣 to cheer
打魚 to fish
打比方 to give an analogy
打火 to light a fire
(打火機) a lighter [「機」是信心級的生字 / 機 is taught in Confident Level]
打住 to stop, to halt
打點 to get ready, to put things in order
打坐 to meditate
打聽 to ask around, to enquire
打耳光 to slap
打不過 To be unable to beat
打從 ever since

 躍進級 BEGINNING READER 

打工 to have a (temporary or casual) work
打更 to sound the night watch
打毛衣 to knit a jumper (sweater)
打發 to send someone to do something, to send someone away
打洞 to punch a hole
打動 to move emotionally
打嘴巴 to slap

 信心級 BEGINNING READER 

打電話 to make a phone call
打包 to wrap / to take away (food)
打傘 to hold up an umbrella
打掉 to destroy / to have an abortion
打字 to type
打字機 a typewriter
打分 to grade or mark
打哈哈 to laugh insincerely
打傷 to injure

 實力級 BEGINNING READER 

打球 to play ball
打遊戲機 to play video game
打掃 to clean up
打燈 to brighten (photo effect) / Cantonese: to light, to signal when driving
打滾 to roll about
打結 to tie a knot
打破 to break, to smash
打圓場 to smooth things over

 成語 idioms 

打成一片 to integrate
打落水狗 to kick somebody when they are down
打發時間 to kill time
打成平手 to draw (an equal match)
抱打不平 to fight for justice

Summary

[打] :繁/簡寫法一樣。繁體屬手部,簡體屬扌部,部外筆畫有2畫,全個字共5畫。
於躍進級第二冊第8課教授。

打 is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese. Its bushou is 手部in traditional Chinese, and扌部 in simplified Chinese. It is written in a total of 5 strokes.
打 is taught in Building Reader, Book 2, Lesson 8.


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