學習是一個過程，在這個過程中有不同的階段。1969年，Martin Broadwell 提出一個學習過程的模型，將整個過程從無知發展到達理分為四個階段。
Learning is a process that can be broken down to different levels. Martin Broadwell (1969) proposed a 4-level model which has later been adopted by many institutes and organisations in developing various training and educational programs.
We have created the following model, based on Broadwell’s proposal, to explore a child’s linguistic development.
[English version follows Chinese]
I. 無意識無知 Unconscious Incompetence
II. 有意識無知 Conscious Incompetence
IV. 無意識達理 Unconscious Competence
Let us take a closer look below at the 4 levels of a child’s language development from zero to competent.
I. Unconscious Incompetence
At this level, the child is most likely a baby or a toddler. He does not know what words are and what they can do. He might not even know of the existence of words.
II. Conscious Incompetence
When the child has come into contact with books, he learns about the existence of words. When parents regularly point out the differences between words, signs and pictures, he starts to grasp the concept of words. This is the beginning of a child’s learning to read.
We can say that for the whole period when a child studies the Basic Chinese 500 course, he is staying at this level. The child needs extensive learning and practice at this level before he can progress to the next level.
III. Conscious Competence
At this level, the child has learnt a large number of characters. He can read many books which corresponds to his cognitive development and understanding. He will also start to write. However, his vocabulary is still limited, and his use of language immature. Sometimes he makes mistakes in forming the characters. Other times he uses a wrong word. He finds it difficult sometimes to fully express what he wants to say, or to put his words in good order. He needs a lot of practice.
At this level, the child must extensively read good quality writings from others, and study classics. At the same time, he must also learn to put reading, thinking, asking questions and looking for answers into practice.
IV. Unconscious Competence
At this level, the words have become part of the child. They can read at ease and read between the lines. They also start to write with style. Words are now one of their tools for them to continue to learn and to entertain themselves. They know how to use words to persuade, or to cooperate with others in planning and exploring.
Looking at this simple infographic, you should help your children stay for the shortest amount of time at the Unconscious Incompetence level.
The Conscious Incompetence and the Conscious Competence levels are relatively longer. Please help your child when they are at these two levels. Your hard work will eventually pay off. Once your child arrives at the Unconscious Competence, they will be empowered by words and engaged in a life-long of learning. they will also enjoy the freedom of innovation and imaginations.
Such a child owns the whole world!