從啟蒙…到習成 From Zero to Competent

學習的四階段模型

學習是一個過程,在這個過程中有不同的階段。1969年,Martin Broadwell 提出一個學習過程的模型,將整個過程從無知發展到達理分為四個階段。
這個模型成為日後不少機構開發多種教育和培訓計劃的藍圖。

下圖是我們根據Broadwell的模型,透視孩子語文發展的幾個階段。


Learning is a process that can be broken down to different levels. Martin Broadwell (1969) proposed a 4-level model which has later been adopted by many institutes and organisations in developing various training and educational programs.

We have created the following model, based on Broadwell’s proposal, to explore a child’s linguistic development.

[English version follows Chinese]

I. 無意識無知 Unconscious Incompetence

就像還未會認讀的小寶寶一樣,他不知道文字到底是甚、能有甚麼威力,他甚至可能沒有意識到文字的存在。

II. 有意識無知 Conscious Incompetence

寶寶和圖書有了一定的接觸,他知道了文字的存在。因為有了家長在日常生活中為他指出文字和圖畫影像的差異,他亦有了這方面的認知。這是開始學習認讀的階段。

可以說,孩子在整個學習基礎漢字500的過程都停留在這個階段。孩子在這個階段必須要大量的學習和操練,才能提升到下一個階段。

III. 有意識達理 Conscious Competence

到了這個階段,孩子已掌握了大部分的漢字,能閱讀多種與他年齡心智相乎的書籍,還能開始寫作。但他的詞彙庫仍不足,文筆修辭還不成熟:有時會寫錯字,也有時會用錯詞語。他會遇到難以表達自己、詞不達意的情況,要多番摸索和歷練。

孩子在這個階段必須多研讀、甚至精讀優秀的經典作品,學習不同的文體,並且結合閱讀、思考、提問、尋求答案這幾個步驟,不斷地去進修。

IV. 無意識達理 Unconscious Competence

到了這個階段,文字已和他融為一體了。我們可以用一目十行、行文如流水⋯這些話來形容他。文字成為了他的工具,供他去學習、娛樂,去打動別人的心,去和其他人合力策劃、探索⋯

我們製作這個理想模式的資訊圖,其中一個目的是希望你將寶寶逗留在無意識的無知階段的時間控制在最短。

有意識的無知、和有意識的達理這兩個階段歷時較長。經過了你和孩子在這兩個階段的共同努力之後,孩子就能享受到無意識的達理這威力無限的階段,從此開展自由自在地終身學習、無拘無束地創意思考的海闊天空美好人生。

這樣的孩子,能擁有全世界~

Let us take a closer look below at the 4 levels of a child’s language development from zero to competent.

I. Unconscious Incompetence

At this level, the child is most likely a baby or a toddler. He does not know what words are and what they can do. He might not even know of the existence of words.

II. Conscious Incompetence

When the child has come into contact with books, he learns about the existence of words. When parents regularly point out the differences between words, signs and pictures, he starts to grasp the concept of words. This is the beginning of a child’s learning to read.

We can say that for the whole period when a child studies the Basic Chinese 500 course, he is staying at this level. The child needs extensive learning and practice at this level before he can progress to the next level.

III. Conscious Competence

At this level, the child has learnt a large number of characters. He can read many books which corresponds to his cognitive development and understanding. He will also start to write. However, his vocabulary is still limited, and his use of language immature. Sometimes he makes mistakes in forming the characters. Other times he uses a wrong word. He finds it difficult sometimes to fully express what he wants to say, or to put his words in good order. He needs a lot of practice.

At this level, the child must extensively read good quality writings from others, and study classics. At the same time, he must also learn to put reading, thinking, asking questions and looking for answers into practice.

IV. Unconscious Competence

At this level, the words have become part of the child. They can read at ease and read between the lines. They also start to write with style. Words are now one of their tools for them to continue to learn and to entertain themselves. They know how to use words to persuade, or to cooperate with others in planning and exploring.

Looking at this simple infographic, you should help your children stay for the shortest amount of time at the Unconscious Incompetence level.

The Conscious Incompetence and the Conscious Competence levels are relatively longer. Please help your child when they are at these two levels. Your hard work will eventually pay off. Once your child arrives at the Unconscious Competence, they will be empowered by words and engaged in a life-long of learning. they will also enjoy the freedom of innovation and imaginations.

Such a child owns the whole world!

 

Posted in 教養心得, 語文發展 Language and tagged , .